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Análisis sistemático sobre el neurodesarrollo en menores con cardiopatías congénitas, sin anomalías cromosómicas

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2018
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Esta revisión sistemática evidencia los resultados obtenidos en el neurodesarrollo de infantes diagnosticados de cardiopatías congénitas (CC), sin anomalías cromosómicas o síndromes asociados, que preceden a las morbilidades y comorbilidades existentes en edades posteriores. El análisis se inició en noviembre de 2016, estableciéndose longitudinalmente en el tiempo hasta noviembre de 2017. Para la selección de los estudios científicos, se señalaron diversos criterios de inclusión como los (1) años de publicación (2006-2017), (2) los idiomas (inglés-castellano) en los que han sido divulgados, la (3) edad de la muestra, incluyéndose aquellos que tengan participantes cuyas edades estén comprendidas en el período de Atención Temprana (AT), en Ed. Primaria y/o en Ed. Secundaria. Todos ellos tenían que haber sido diagnosticados de (4) CC e (5) intervenidos quirúrgicamente en los primeros meses de vida o en la primera infancia. Se recopilaron un total de 132 artículos a través de las bases de datos de PubMed y Scopus (Ed. Elsevier) que redirigían a la publicación de revistas científicas como The JournalPediatrics, Infant behavior and development, entre otras. De los 132 estudios previamente seleccionados, se eliminaron 7 por duplicación, quedando 125. De éstos, se eliminaron 22 porque no cumplían con los criterios de inclusión previamente establecidos. Se analizaron en profundidad 103 investigaciones, y se seleccionaron 16. Durante el análisis de los estudios se ha procedido a la eliminación de sesgos por parte del investigador. Los resultados de estas investigaciones reportan que los menores con CC presentan lentificaciones en las áreas del desarrollo vinculadas a la propia cardiopatía per sé y que en edades posteriores, especialmente, en el ámbito escolar se identifican dificultades de aprendizaje. Por todo ello, se considera necesario que los infantes con CC puedan participar en programas de AT, con la finalidad de normalizar su desarrollo y reducir la (co)morbilidad existente en edades posteriores.
This systematic review evinces the results obtained in the neurodevelopment of infants diagnosed with congenital heart disease (CHD), without chromosomal defects or associated syndromes, which precede morbidities and comorbidities existing at later ages. The analysis began in November 2016 and took place until November 2017. For the selection of scientific studies, various inclusion criteria had to be taken into account, such as (1) years of publication (2006-2017), (2) languages (EnglishSpanish) in which they have been published, (3) age of the sample, including those with participants whose ages are included in the period of Early Intervention, in Primary Education and/or Secondary Education. All of them had to have been diagnosed with (4) CHD and (5) surgically intervened in the first months of life or in early childhood. A total of 132 articles were gathered through PubMed and Scopus databases (Ed. Elsevier) that redirected to the publication of scientific journals such as The Journal Pediatrics, Infant behavior and development, among others. Of the 132 studies previously selected, 7 were eliminated by duplication, leaving 125. Of these, 22 were removed because they did not meet the inclusion criteria previously established. 103 research articles were analyzed in depth, and 16 were selected. During the analysis of the studies, biased conclusions from the perspective of the researcher were eliminated. The results of these studies report that children with CHD exhibit lethargy in the areas of development linked to their own congenital heart disease per se and that at later ages, especially in the academic circle, learning difficulties are identified. Therefore, it is considered necessary for infants with CHD to participate in Early Care programs, in order to regulate their development and reduce the existing (co)morbidity in later ages.
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