The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs First visual-channel radial-velocity measurements and orbital parameter updates of seven M-dwarf planetary systems

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Context. The main goal of the CARMENES survey is to find Earth-mass planets around nearby M-dwarf stars. Seven M dwarfs included in the CARMENES sample had been observed before with HIRES and HARPS and either were reported to have one short period planetary companion (GJ 15 A, GJ 176, GJ 436, GJ 536 and GJ 1148) or are multiple planetary systems (GJ 581 and GJ 876). Aims. We aim to report new precise optical radial velocity measurements for these planet hosts and test the overall capabilities of CARMENES. Methods. We combined our CARMENES precise Doppler measurements with those available from HIRES and HARPS and derived new orbital parameters for the systems. Bona-fide single planet systems were fitted with a Keplerian model. The multiple planet systems were analyzed using a self-consistent dynamical model and their best fit orbits were tested for long-term stability. Results. We confirm or provide supportive arguments for planets around all the investigated stars except for GJ 15 A, for which we find that the post-discovery HIRES data and our CARMENES data do not show a signal at 11.4 days. Although we cannot confirm the super-Earth planet GJ 15 Ab, we show evidence for a possible long-period (P-c = 7030(-630)(+970) d) Saturn-mass (m(c) sin i = 51.8(-5.8)(+5.5) M-circle plus) planet around GJ 15 A. In addition, based on our CARMENES and HIRES data we discover a second planet around GJ 1148, for which we estimate a period P-c = 532.6(-2.5)(+4.1) days, eccentricity e(c) = 0.342(-0.062)(+0.050) and minimum mass m(c) sin i = 68.1(-2.2)(+4.9) M-circle plus. Conclusions. The CARMENES optical radial velocities have similar precision and overall scatter when compared to the Doppler measurements conducted with HARPS and HIRES. We conclude that CARMENES is an instrument that is up to the challenge of discovering rocky planets around low-mass stars.
© ESO, 2018. Artículo firmado por 169 autores. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Konigstuhl, Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Insitut fur Astrophysik Gottingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation (DFG), the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Wurttemberg and Niedersachsen, the DFG Research Unit FOR2544 "Blue Planets around Red Stars", and by the Junta de Andalucía. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This work used the Systemic Console package (Meschiari et al. 2009) for cross-checking our Keplerian and Dynamical fits and the python package astroML (VanderPlas et al. 2012) for the calculation of the GLS periodogram. The IEEC-CSIC team acknowledges support by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) and the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER) through grant ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, as well as the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. The IAA-CSIC team acknowledges support by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) through grants AYA2014-54348-C03-01 and AYA2016-79425-C3-3-P as well as FEDER funds. The UCM team acknowledges support by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) from projects AYA2015-68012-C2-2-P and AYA2016-79425- C3-1,2,3-P and the Spanish Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, programa de Formación de Profesorado Universitario, under grant FPU15/01476. T. T. and M.K. thank to Jan Rybizki for the very helpful discussion in the early phases of this work. V.J.S.B. is supported by grant AYA2015-69350-C3-2-P from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness (MINECO). J.C.S. acknowledges funding support from Spanish public funds for research under project ESP2015-65712-C5-5-R (MINECO/FEDER), and under Research Fellowship program "Ramón y Cajal" with reference RYC2012-09913 (MINECO/FEDER). The contributions of M.A. were supported by DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt) through the grants 50OW0204 and 50OO1501. J.L.-S. acknowledges the Office of Naval Research Global (award No. N62909-15- 1-2011) for support. C.d.B. acknowledges that this work has been supported by Mexican CONACyT research grant CB-2012-183007 and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity through projects AYA2014-54348-C3-2-R. J.I.G.H., and R.R. acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Ministry project MINECO AYA2014-56359-P. J.I.G.H. also acknowledges financial support from the Spanish MINECO under the 2013 Ramón y Cajal program MINECO RYC-2013-14875. V. Wolthoff acknowledges funding from the DFG Research Unit FOR2544 "Blue Planets around Red Stars", project No. RE 2694/4-1.; We thank the anonymous referee for the excellent comments that helped to improve the quality of this paper.
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