Ground-based detection of an extended helium atmosphere in the Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-69b

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Hot gas giant exoplanets can lose part of their atmosphere due to strong stellar irradiation, affecting their physical and chemical evolution. Studies of atmospheric escape from 2 exoplanets have mostly relied on space-based observations of the hydrogen Lyman-α line in the far ultraviolet which is strongly affected by interstellar absorption. Using ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy we detect excess absorption in the helium triplet at 1083 nm during the transit of the Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-69b, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 18. We measure line blue shifts of several km s^(-1) and post transit absorption, which we interpret as the escape of part of the atmosphere trailing behind the planet in comet-like form.
© The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. Artículo firmado por 28 autores. Parts of the results shown are based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. We acknowledge the XMM-Newton Project Scientist for the quick and positive reaction to our request for a director's discretionary time observation of WASP-107. The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to this paper. Funding: CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, Insitut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. We acknowledge funding from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) and the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER) through grants: ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, ESP 2016-76076-R, ESP2014- 54362-P, ESP 2014-54062-R, AYA2016-79425-C3-2-P, AYA2016-79425-C3-1-P, AYA2016- 79425-C3-2-P, AYA2014-54348-C3-1-R and AYA2016-79425-C3-3-P. Further we acknowledge funding through the Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft (DFG) through: DFG DR281/32-1, RE 1664/14-1, DFG SFB 676, DFG SCHM 1032/57-1 and by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) through grants DLR 50 OR 1710, DLR 50 OR 1307, BMWi50OR1505 as well as the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. I.A.G and F.J.A-F. acknowledge funding from the research programme VICI 639.043.107 17 funded by the Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), and funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 694513. G.C. acknowledges the support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11503088) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. BK20151051).
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