Demographics of Star-forming Galaxies since z similar to 2.5. I. The UVJ Diagram in CANDELS

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This is the first in a series of papers examining the demographics of star-forming (SF) galaxies at 0.2 < z < 2.5 in CANDELS. We study 9100 galaxies from GOODS-S and UDS, having published values of redshifts, masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and dust attenuation (A_(V)) derived from UV–optical spectral energy distribution fitting. In agreement with previous works, we find that the UVJ colors of a galaxy are closely correlated with its specific star formation rate (SSFR) and A_(V). We define rotated UVJ coordinate axes, termed S_(SED) and C_(SED), that are parallel and perpendicular to the SF sequence and derive a quantitative calibration that predicts SSFR from C_(SED) with an accuracy of ∼0.2 dex. SFRs from UV–optical fitting and from UV+IR values based on Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm agree well overall, but systematic differences of order 0.2 dex exist at high and low redshifts. A novel plotting scheme conveys the evolution of multiple galaxy properties simultaneously, and dust growth, as well as star formation decline and quenching, exhibit “mass-accelerated evolution” (“downsizing”). A population of transition galaxies below the SF main sequence is identified. These objects are located between SF and quiescent galaxies in UVJ space, and have lower A_(V) and smaller radii than galaxies on the main sequence. Their properties are consistent with their being in transit between the two regions. The relative numbers of quenched, transition, and SF galaxies are given as a function of mass and redshift.
© 2018 The American Astronomical Society. Artículo firmado por 44 autores. We thank the referee for extensive comments that led to major improvements and clarifications in the paper. The main CANDELS HST observations were supported under program number HST-GO-12060, provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5- 26555. The present work is also based in part on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope, operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by Europeanled principal investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. PACS on Herschel has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including UVIE (Austria); KU Leuven, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, LAM (France); MPIA (Germany); INAFIFSI/OAA/OAP/OAT, LENS, SISSA (Italy); IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESA-PRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI/INAF (Italy), and CICYT/ MCYT (Spain). SPIRE Herschel has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff University (UK) and including the University of Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, University of Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, University of Sussex (UK); Caltech, JPL, NHSC, University of Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC, UKSA (UK); and NASA (USA). J.J. F. and members of the CANDELS team at UCSC acknowledge support from NASA HST grant GO-12060.10-A and NSF grant AST-0808133. The Rainbow database is operated by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), partnered with the University of California Observatories at Santa Cruz (UCO/Lick, UCSC). The Rainbow database is partially funded by: the Spanish Programa Nacional de Astronomía y Astrofísica under grants AYA2015-63650-P and AYA2015-70815-ERC and US NSF grant AST-08-08133. Finally, we acknowledge the support of hundreds of individuals involved in the planning, execution, and reduction of the CANDELS observations, and to the development and installation of the new instruments on HST that made them possible. We further acknowledge the work of several dozen CANDELS collaborators who produced the photometric, structural, and other value-added data catalogs that form the foundation of this work. Finally, we highlight the contributions of ground-based observatories, too numerous to mention, that provided critical photometric and spectroscopic ground-based data. The CANDELS catalogs are the culmination of a decades-long, successful partnership between space- and ground-based facilities to map the universe.
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