The multiphase starburst-driven galactic wind in NGC 5394

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We present a detailed study of the neutral and ionized gas phases in the galactic wind for the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 5394 based on new integral field spectroscopy obtained with the INTEGRAL fibre system at the William Herschel Telescope. The neutral gas phase in the wind is detected via the interstellar Na I D doublet absorption. After a careful removal of the stellar contribution to these lines, a significant amount of neutral gas (∼10^7 M_⊙) is detected in a central region of ∼1.75 kpc size. This neutral gas is blueshifted by ∼165 km s^−1 with respect to the underlying galaxy. The mass outflow of neutral gas is comparable to the star formation rate of the host galaxy. Simultaneously, several emission lines (Hα, [N II], [S II]) are also analysed looking for the ionized warm phase counterpart of the wind. A careful kinematic decomposition of the line profiles reveals the presence of a secondary, broader, kinematic component. This component is found roughly in the same region where the Na I D absorption is detected. It presents higher [N II]/Hα and [S II]/Hα line ratios than the narrow component at the same locations, indicative of contamination by shock ionization. This secondary component also presents blueshifted velocities, although smaller than those measured for the neutral gas, averaging to ∼−30 km s^−1. The mass and mass outflow rate of the wind is dominated by the neutral gas, of which a small fraction might be able to escape the gravitational potential of the host galaxy. The observations in this system can be readily understood within a bipolar gas flow scenario.
© 2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. We are grateful to the anonymous referee for useful suggestions that improved the presentation of this work. PMF, JJV and AZ acknowledge support from the project AYA2014-53506-P financed by the Spanish 'Ministerio de Economía y Competividad' and by FEDER (Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional), and from the 'Junta de Andalucía' local government through the FQM-108 project. EMG is supported by the Spanish 'Ministerio de Economía y Competividad' through project AYA2013-47744-C3-1. ACM also thanks the support from the 'Plan Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo' funding programme AYA2013-46724-P.; Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III web site is; SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)/University of Tokyo, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut fur Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatory of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatario Nacional/MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University.
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