Modeling the shock-cloud interaction in SN 1006: unveiling the origin of nonthermal X-ray and gamma-ray emission

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Context. The supernova remnant SN 1006 is a source of high-energy particles and its southwestern limb is interacting with a dense ambient cloud, thus being a promising region for γ−ray hadronic emission. Aims. We aim at describing the physics and the nonthermal emission associated with the shock-cloud interaction to derive the physical parameters of the cloud (poorly constrained by the data analysis), to ascertain the origin of the observed spatial variations in the spectral properties of the X-ray synchrotron emission, and to predict spectral and morphological features of the resulting γ−ray emission. Methods. We performed 3-D magnetohydrodynamic simulations modeling the evolution of SN 1006 and its interaction with the ambient cloud, and explored different model setups. By applying the REMLIGHT code on the model results, we synthesized the synchrotron X-ray emission, and compared it with actual observations, to constrain the parameters of the model. We also synthesized the leptonic and hadronic γ−ray emission from the models, deriving constraints on the energy content of the hadrons accelerated at the southwestern limb. Results. We found that the impact of the SN 1006 shock front with a uniform cloud with density 0.5 cm^(−3) can explain the observed morphology, the azimuthal variations of the cutoff frequency of the X-ray synchrotron emission, and the shock proper motion in the interaction region. Our results show that the current upper limit for the total hadronic energy in the southwestern limb is 2.5 × 10^(49) erg.
© 2016 ESO. We thank the anonymous referee for their comments and suggestions. The software used in this work was in part developed by the DOEsupported ASC / Alliance Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. We acknowledge the HPC facility at CINECA, Italy, and the HPC facility SCAN of the INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo for the availability of high performance computing resources and support. This paper was partially funded by the PRIN INAF 2014 grant “Filling the gap between supernova explosions and their remnants through magnetohydrodynamic modeling and high performance computing”. MM thanks E. Amato for interesting discussions and suggestions. VP acknowledges the support of the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad through grant AYA2011-29754-C03. PFW acknowledges the support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra Grant Number GO2-13066. The work of GD is funded by PICT-ANPCyT 0571/11 and PIP-CONICET 0736/11 of Argentina.
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