ARRAKIS: atlas of resonance rings as known in the S^(4)G

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Context. Resonance rings and pseudorings (here collectively called rings) are thought to be related to the gathering of material near dynamical resonances caused by non-axisymmetries in galaxy discs. This means that they are the result of secular evolution processes that redistribute material and angular momentum in discs. Studying them may give clues on the formation and growth of bars and other disc non-axisymmetries. Aims. Our aims are to produce a catalogue and an atlas of the rings detected in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S^4G) and to conduct a statistical study of the data in the catalogue. Methods. We traced the contours of rings previously identified and fitted them with ellipses. We found the orientation of bars by studying the galaxy ellipse fits from the S^4G pipeline 4. We used the galaxy orientation data obtained by the S^4G pipeline 4 to obtain intrinsic ellipticities and orientations of rings and the bars. Results. ARRAKIS contains data on 724 ringed galaxies in the S^4G. The frequency of resonance rings in the S^4G is of 16 ± 1% and 35 ± 1% for outer and inner features, respectively. Outer rings are mostly found in Hubble stages − 1 ≤ T ≤ 4. Inner rings are found in a broad distribution that covers the range − 1 ≤ T ≤ 7. We confirm that outer rings have two preferred orientations, namely parallel and perpendicular to the bar. We confirm a tendency for inner rings to be oriented parallel to the bar, but we report the existence of a significant fraction (maybe as large as 50%) of inner features that have random orientations with respect to the bar. These misaligned inner rings are mostly found in late-type galaxies (T ≥ 4). We find that the fraction of barred galaxies hosting outer (inner) rings is ~1.7 times (~1.3 times) that in unbarred galaxies. Conclusions. We confirm several results from previous surveys as well as predictions from simulations of resonant rings and/or from manifold flux tube theory. We report that a significant fraction of inner rings in late-type galaxies have a random orientation with respect to the bar. This may be caused by spiral modes that are decoupled from the bar and dominate the Fourier amplitude spectrum at the radius of the inner ring. The fact that rings are only mildly favoured by bars suggests that those in unbarred galaxies either formed because of weak departures from the axisymmetry of the galactic potential or that they are born because of bars that were destroyed after the ring formation.
© ESO, 2014. Artículo firmado por 22 autores. We thank our anonymous referee, who very carefully read this paper. The authors wish to thank the entire S4G team for their efforts in this project. We thank Pertti Rautiainen for useful discussions on the ring formation in his simulations, Simón Díaz García for helping with fundamental statistical concepts, and Glenn van de Ven for his useful comments. We acknowledge financial support to the DAGAL network from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013/under REA grant agreement number PITN-GA-2011-289313. E.A. and A.B. acknowledge financial support from the CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales - France). K.S., J.-C.M.-M., T.K., and T.M. acknowledge support from the National Radio Observatory, which is a facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. S.C., H.S., E.L., M.H.-H., and J.L. acknowledge support from the Academy of Finland. This work is based on observations and archival data made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. We are grateful to the dedicated staff at the Spitzer Science Center for their help and support in planning and execution of this Exploration Science program. We also gratefully acknowledge support from NASA JPL/Spitzer grant RSA 1374189 provided for the S4G project. This research has made use of SAOImage DS9, developed by Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
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