Evolution along the sequence of S0 Hubble types induced by dry minor mergers I. Global bulge-to-disk structural relations

Thumbnail Image
Full text at PDC
Publication Date
Eliche Moral, María del Carmen
González García, A. C.
Aguerri, J. A. L.
Balcells, M.
Prieto, M.
Advisors (or tutors)
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
EDP Sciencies
Google Scholar
Research Projects
Organizational Units
Journal Issue
Context. Recent studies have argued that galaxy mergers are not important drivers for the evolution of S0's, on the basis that mergers cannot preserve the coupling between the bulge and disk scale-lengths observed in these galaxies and the lack of correlation of their ratio with the S0 Hubble type. However, about 70% of present-day S0's reside in groups, an environment where mergers and tidal interactions dominate galaxy evolution. Aims. We investigate whether the remnants resulting from collision-less N-body simulations of intermediate and minor mergers onto S0 galaxies evolve fulfilling global structural relations observed between the bulges and disks of these galaxies. Methods. Different initial bulge-to-disk ratios of the primary S0 have been considered, as well as different satellite densities, mass ratios, and orbits of the encounter. We have analysed the final morphology of the remnants in images simulating the typical observing conditions of S0 surveys. We derive bulge+disk decompositions of the final remnants to compare their global bulge-to-disk structure with observations. Results. We show that all remnants present undisturbed S0 morphologies according to the prescriptions of specialized surveys. The dry intermediate and minor mergers induce noticeable bulge growth (S0c --> S0b and S0b --> S0a), but affect negligibly to the bulge and disk scale-lengths. Therefore, if a coupling between these two components exists prior to the merger, the encounter does not break this coupling. This fact provides a simple explanation for the lack of correlation between the ratio of bulge and disk scale-lengths and the S0 Hubble type reported by observations. Conclusions. These models prove that dry intermediate and minor mergers can induce global structural evolution within the sequence of S0 Hubble types compatible with observations, meaning that these processes should not be discarded from the evolutionary scenarios of S0's just on the basis of the strong coupling observed between the bulge and disk scale-lengths in these galaxies.
© ESO 2012. The authors thank the anonymous referee for the provided input that helped to improve this publication significantly. We also thank Olga Sil'chenko for stimulating the present study, as well as Peter Erwin and Miguel Querejeta for interesting and useful comments. Supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) under projects AYA2009-10368, AYA2006-12955, AYA2010-21887-C04-04, and AYA2009-11137, and by the Madrid Regional Government through the AstroMadrid Project (CAM S2009/ESP-1496, Funded by the Spanish MICINN under the Consolider-Ingenio 2010 Program grant CSD2006-00070: "First Science with the GTC" ( ACGG is a Ramón y Cajal Fellow of the Spanish MICINN. This research is based in part on services provided by the GAVO data center. It has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. S. D. H. & G.
Unesco subjects
Abadi, M. G., Moore, B., & Bower, R. G. 1999, MNRAS, 308, 947 Aguerri, J. A. L. 2012, Adv. Astron., 2012 Aguerri, J. A. L., Balcells, M., & Peletier, R. F. 2001, A&A, 367, 428 Aguerri, J. A. L., Méndez Abreu, J., & Corsini, E. M. 2009, A&A, 495, 491 Athanassoula, E., Lambert, J. C., & Dehnen, W. 2005, MNRAS, 363, 496 Athanassoula, E., Romero Gómez, M., Bosma, A., & Masdemont, J. J. 2009a, MNRAS, 400, 1706 Athanassoula, E., Romero Gómez, M., & Masdemont, J. J. 2009b, MNRAS, 394, 67 Bai, L., Rasmussen, J., Mulchaey, J. S., et al. 2010, ApJ, 713, 637 Balcells, M., Graham, A. W., & Peletier, R. F. 2007, ApJ, 665, 1104 Barway, S., Kembhavi, A., Wadadekar, Y., Ravikumar, C. D., & Mayya, Y. D. 2007, ApJ, 661, L37 Barway, S., Wadadekar, Y., Kembhavi, A. K., & Mayya, Y. D. 2009, MNRAS, 394, 1991 Barway, S., Wadadekar, Y., & Kembhavi, A. K. 2011, MNRAS, 410, L18 Bekki, K. 1998, ApJ, 502, L133 Berlind, A. A., Frieman, J., Weinberg, D. H., et al. 2006, ApJS, 167, 1 Bournaud, F., & Combes, F. 2002, A&A, 392, 83 Bournaud, F., Combes, F., & Jog, C. J. 2004, A&A, 418, L27 Bournaud, F., Jog, C. J., & Combes, F. 2005, A&A, 437, 69 Bournaud, F., Jog, C. J., & Combes, F. 2007, A&A, 476, 1179 Brook, C., Richard, S., Kawata, D., Martel, H., & Gibson, B. K. 2007, ApJ, 658, 60 Buta, R., Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., & Knapen, J. H. 2010, ApJ, 721, 259 Cappellari, M., Emsellem, E., Krajnović, D., et al. 2011, MNRAS, 416, 1680 Chies-Santos, A. L., Larsen, S. S., Kuntschner, H., et al. 2011, A&A, 525, A20 Christlein, D., & Zabludoff, A. I. 2004, ApJ, 616, 192 Chung, A., van Gorkom, J. H., Kenney, J. D. P., & Vollmer, B. 2007, ApJ, 659, L115 Ciotti, L. 1991, A&A, 249, 99 Cooper, A. P., Cole, S., Frenk, C. S., et al. 2010, MNRAS, 406, 744 Corwin, Jr., H. G., Buta, R. J., & de Vaucouleurs, G. 1994, AJ, 108, 2128 Courteau, S., de Jong, R. S., & Broeils, A. H. 1996, ApJ, 457, L73 Cox, T. J., Jonsson, P., Somerville, R. S., Primack, J. R., & Dekel, A. 2008, MNRAS, 384, 386 Crook, A. C., Huchra, J. P., Martimbeau, N., et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 Darg, D. W., Kaviraj, S., Lintott, C. J., et al. 2010, MNRAS, 401, 1043 de Jong, R. S. 1996, A&A, 313, 45 de Vaucouleurs, G. 1959, Handbuch der Physik, 53, 275 de Vaucouleurs, G., de Vaucouleurs, A., Corwin, Jr., H. G., et al. 1991, Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, XII, 2069 (Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer-Verlag), Vols. I−III Debattista, V. P., Carollo, C. M., Mayer, L., & Moore, B. 2005, ApJ, 628, 678 Debattista, V. P., Mayer, L., Carollo, C. M., et al. 2006, ApJ, 645, 209 Dressler, A. 1980, ApJ, 236, 351 Duc P.-A., Cuillandre, J.-C., Serra, P., et al. 2011, MNRAS, 417, 863 Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R. 1993, An Introduction to the Bootstrap (New York: Chapman & Hall) Eliche Moral, M. C., Balcells, M., Aguerri, J. A. L., & González García, A. C. 2006a, A&A, 457, 91 (EM06) Eliche Moral, M. C., Balcells, M., Prieto, M., et al. 2006b, ApJ, 639, 644 Eliche Moral, M. C., González García, A. C., Balcells, M., et al. 2011, A&A, 533, A104 (EM11) Fasano, G., Poggianti, B. M., Couch, W. J., et al. 2000, ApJ, 542, 673 Freeland, E., Stilp, A., & Wilcots, E. 2009, AJ, 138, 295 Freeman, K. C. 1970, ApJ, 160, 811 González García, A. C., & Balcells, M. 2005, MNRAS, 357, 753 Graham, A. W. 2001a, MNRAS, 326, 543 Graham, A. W. 2001b, AJ, 121, 820 Heraudeau, P., & Simien, F. 1997, A&A, 326, 897 Hernquist, L. 1987, ApJS, 64, 715 Hernquist, L. 1990, ApJ, 356, 359 Hernquist, L., & Barnes, J. E. 1990, ApJ, 349, 562 Hernquist, L., & Katz, N. 1989, ApJS, 70, 419 Hubble, E. P. 1926, ApJ, 64, 321 Huchra, J. P., & Geller, M. J. 1982, ApJ, 257, 423 Huertas Company, M., Aguerri, J. A. L., Tresse, L., et al. 2010, A&A, 515, A3 Hunt, L. K., Pierini, D., & Giovanardi, C. 2004, A&A, 414, 905 Jarrett, T. H., Chester, T., Cutri, R., Schneider, S. E., & Huchra, J. P. 2003, AJ, 125, 525 Jogee, S., Miller, S. H., Penner, K., et al. 2009, ApJ, 697, 1971 Kannappan, S. J., Guie, J. M., & Baker, A. J. 2009, AJ, 138, 579 Kaviraj, S., Peirani, S., Khochfar, S., Silk, J., & Kay, S. 2009, MNRAS, 394, 1713 Kaviraj, S., Tan, K.-M., Ellis, R. S., & Silk, J. 2011, MNRAS, 411, 2148 Kenney, J. D. P., & Koopmann, R. A. 1999, AJ, 117, 181 Kim, T., Sheth, K., Hinz, J. L., et al. 2012, ApJ, 753, 43 Kormendy, J. 1979, ApJ, 227, 714 Kormendy, J., & Bender, R. 2012, ApJS, 198, 2 Kormendy, J., & Kennicutt, Jr., R. C. 2004, ARA&A, 42, 603 Kuijken, K., & Dubinski, J. 1995, MNRAS, 277, 1341 Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., & Buta, R. 2005, MNRAS, 362, 1319 Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., Buta, R., et al. 2006, AJ, 132, 2634 Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., Buta, R., & Knapen, J. H. 2007, MNRAS, 381, 401 Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., Buta, R., & Knapen, J. H. 2009, ApJ, 692, L34 Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., Buta, R., Knapen, J. H., & Comerón, S. 2010, MNRAS, 405, 1089 (L10) Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., Buta, R., & Knapen, J. H. 2011, MNRAS, 418, 1452 Lotz, J. M., Davis, M., Faber, S. M., et al. 2008, ApJ, 672, 177 MacArthur, L. A., Courteau, S., & Holtzman, J. A. 2003, ApJ, 582, 689 Mahabal, A. A. 1998, Ph.D. Thesis, Pune Univ. Minniti, D., Saito, R. K., Alonso García, J., Lucas, P. W., & Hempel, M. 2011, ApJ, 733, L43 Moore, B., Lake, G., Quinn, T., & Stadel, J. 1999, MNRAS, 304, 465 Naab, T., & Trujillo, I. 2006, MNRAS, 369, 625 Nair, P. B., & Abraham, R. G. 2010, ApJ, 714, L260 Peng, C. Y., Ho, L. C., Impey, C. D., & Rix, H.-W. 2010, AJ, 139, 2097 Pfenniger, D., & Norman, C. 1990, ApJ, 363, 391 Poggianti, B. M., Desai, V., Finn, R., et al. 2008, ApJ, 684, 888 Poggianti, B. M., Fasano, G., Bettoni, D., et al. 2009, ApJ, 697, L137 Portinari, L., Sommer-Larsen, J., & Tantalo, R. 2004, MNRAS, 347, 691 Postman, M., Franx, M., Cross, N. J. G., et al. 2005, ApJ, 623, 721 Press, W. H., Teukolsky, S. A., Vetterling, W. T., & Flannery, B. P. 1994, Numerical Recipes in Fortran (New York: Cambridge University Press) Quilis, V., Moore, B., & Bower, R. 2000, Science, 288, 1617 Reshetnikov, V. P. 2000, Astrophysics, 43, 145 Sandage, A. 1961, The Hubble atlas of galaxies (Washington: Carnegie Institution) Scannapieco, C., & Tissera, P. B. 2003, MNRAS, 338, 880 Schawinski, K., Thomas, D., Sarzi, M., et al. 2007, MNRAS, 382, 1415 Sellwood, J. A., & Moore, E. M. 1999, ApJ, 510, 125 Sersic, J. L. 1968, Atlas de galaxias australes (Córdoba, Argentina: Observatorio Astronómico) Simard, L., Clowe, D., Desai, V., et al. 2009, A&A, 508, 1141 Smith, G. P., Treu, T., Ellis, R. S., Moran, S. M., & Dressler, A. 2005, ApJ, 620, 78 Spergel, D. N., Bean, R., Doré, O., et al. 2007, ApJS, 170, 377 Springel, V. 2005, MNRAS, 364, 1105 Springel, V., Yoshida, N., & White, S. D. M. 2001, New Astron., 6, 79 Tully, R. B., & Fisher, J. R. 1977, A&A, 54, 661 Tutukov, A. V., & Fedorova, A. V. 2006, Astron. Rep., 50, 785 van den Bergh, S. 1976, ApJ, 206, 883 Weinzirl, T., Jogee, S., Khochfar, S., Burkert, A., & Kormendy, J. 2009, ApJ, 696, 411 Wilman, D. J., Oemler, Jr., A., Mulchaey, J. S., et al. 2009, ApJ, 692, 298 Younger, J. D., Cox, T. J., Seth, A. C., & Hernquist, L. 2007, ApJ, 670, 269