Taming singularities of the quantum Fisher information

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Quantum Fisher information matrices (QFIMs) are fundamental to estimation theory: they encode the ultimate limit for the sensitivity with which a set of parameters can be estimated using a given probe. Since the limit invokes the inverse of a QFIM, an immediate question is what to do with singular QFIMs. Moreover, the QFIM may be discontinuous, forcing one away from the paradigm of regular statistical models. These questions of nonregular quantum statistical models are present in both single- and multiparameter estimation. Geometrically, singular QFIMs occur when the curvature of the metric vanishes in one or more directions in the space of probability distributions, while QFIMs have discontinuities when the density matrix has parameter-dependent rank. We present a nuanced discussion of how to deal with each of these scenarios, stressing the physical implications of singular QFIMs and the ensuing ramifications for quantum metrology.
© 2021 World Scientific Publishing Company JLR, ASS, and LLSS acknowledge financial support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Projects ApresSF and Stormytune). LLSS acknowledges funding from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (Grant No. PGC2018-099183-B-I00).