Publication: Search for Very High-energy Emission from the Millisecond Pulsar PSR J0218+4232
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PSR J0218+4232 is one of the most energetic millisecond pulsars known and has long been considered as one of the best candidates for very high-energy (VHE; >100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. Using 11.5 yr of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data between 100 MeV and 870 GeV, and similar to 90 hr of Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) observations in the 20 GeV to 20 TeV range, we searched for the highest energy gamma-ray emission from PSR J0218+4232. Based on the analysis of the LAT data, we find evidence for pulsed emission above 25 GeV, but see no evidence for emission above 100 GeV (VHE) with MAGIC. We present the results of searches for gamma-ray emission, along with theoretical modeling, to interpret the lack of VHE emission. We conclude that, based on the experimental observations and theoretical modeling, it will remain extremely challenging to detect VHE emission from PSR J0218+4232 with the current generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, and maybe even with future ones, such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array.
Artículo firmado por 199 autores. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. This research was partially carried out using the HKU Information Technology Services research computing facilities that are supported in part by the Hong Kong UGC Special Equipment Grant (SEG HKU09). P.S.P. and C.Y.N. are supported at HKU by a grant from the Big Data Project Fund (BDPF) and a GRF grant (Project 17307618) from the Hong Kong government. A.K.H. acknowledges resources supporting the theoretical modeling provided by the NASA High-End Computing Program through the NASA Center for Climate Simulation. D.F.T. acknowledges support from the Spanish grants PGC2018-095512-B-I00 and SGR2017-1383, as well as from the Chinese Academy of Sciences Presidential Fellowship Initiative 2021VMA0001. The Nancay Radio Observatory is operated by the Paris Observatory, associated with the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). We acknowledge financial support from the "Programme National Hautes Energies" (PNHE) of CNRS/INSU, France.; We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF, MPG and HGF; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the SpanishMinisterio de Ciencia e Innovacion (MICINN) (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R, FPA2017-90566-REDC, PID2019-104114RB-C31, PID2019-104114RB-C32, PID2019-105510GB-C31,PID2019-107847RB-C41, PID2019-107847RB-C42, PID2019-107988GB-C22); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-268/16.12.2019 and the Academy of Finland grant No. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" SEV-2016-0588 and CEX2019-000920-S, and "María de Maeztu" CEX2019-000918M, the Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu" MDM-2015-0509-18-2 and the "la Caixa" Foundation (fellowship LCF/BQ/PI18/11630012) and by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya; by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project 220.127.116.11.02; by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3; the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382; and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq and FAPERJ. We thank Matthew Kerr and Philippe Bruel for their careful reading of the manuscript and useful comments and suggestions, which greatly improved the paper. We thank Slavko Bogdanov for providing the X-ray data points used in this work. Finally, we sincerely thank the journal referee for taking the time and effort to provide a detailed review of our paper, providing some very helpful feedback, which helped us improve the final version of the article.