Oxidative stress in patients with advanced CKD and renal replacement therapy: the key role of peripheral blood leukocytes

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Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most studies have investigated peripheral redox state focus on plasma, but not in different immune cells. Our study analyzed several redox state markers in plasma and isolated peripheral polymorphonuclear (PMNs) and mononuclear (MNs) leukocytes from advanced-CKD patients, also evaluating differences of hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) procedures. Antioxidant (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH)) and oxidant parameters (xanthine oxidase (XO), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA)) were assessed in plasma, PMNs and MNs from non-dialysis-dependent-CKD (NDD-CKD), HD and PD patients and healthy controls. Increased oxidative stress and damage were observed in plasma, PMNs and MNs from NDD-CKD, HD and PD patients (increased XO, GSSG and MDA; decreased SOD, CAT, GPX and GSH; altered GSSG/GSH balance). Several oxidative alterations were more exacerbated in PMNs, whereas others were only observed in MNs. Dialysis procedures had a positive effect on preserving the GSSG/GSH balance in PMNs. Interestingly, PD patients showed greater oxidative stress than HD patients, especially in MNs. The assessment of redox state parameters in PMNs and MNs could have potential use as biomarkers of the CKD progression.