Flow regime and bedforms in a ridge and runnel system, S.E. Spain

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Elsevier Science B.V.
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During landward migration, ridge and runnel systems are subjected to asymmetric oscillatory and/or unidirectional flow regimes, depending on the stage of development reached by these systems. In the early stages of evolution, when the ridge is situated in the upper shoreface, the whole system is subjected to asymmetric oscillatory flow. The runnel is under lower flow regime conditions and the ridge may be under upper or lower flow regime according to water depth and wave energy. Later, when the ridge has migrated to a position on the foreshore, the runnel is largely under a unidirectional lower flow regime while the ridge itself is under oscillatory upper flow regime. When the ridge welds to berm, it is largely emergent and exposed to high-tide swash action under upper flow regime conditions. The runnel is eventually filled with sand and transformed into a low-lying area. All these types grade laterally into each other. One or more ridge and runnel systems can occur at the same time. Wave energy, tide level and position of the ridge control the variations in the characteristics of the ridge and also the position of the zones of bedforms found at the upper shoreface