Publication: The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs Diagnostic capabilities of strong K I lines for photosphere and chromosphere
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López Gallifa, Álvaro
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There are several strong K I lines found in the spectra of M dwarfs, among them the doublet near 7700 angstrom and another doublet near 12 500 angstrom. We study these optical and near-infrared doublets in a sample of 324 M dwarfs, observed with CARMENES, the high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectrograph at Calar Alto, and investigate how well the lines can be used as photospheric and chromospheric diagnostics. Both doublets have a dominant photospheric component in inactive stars and can be used as tracers of effective temperature and gravity. For variability studies using the optical doublet, we concentrate on the red line component because this is less prone to artefacts from telluric correction in individual spectra. The optical doublet lines are sensitive to activity, especially for M dwarfs later than M5.0 V where the lines develop an emission core. For earlier type M dwarfs, the red component of the optical doublet lines is also correlated with Ha activity. We usually find positive correlation for stars with Ha in emission, while early-type M stars with Ha in absorption show anti-correlation. During flares, the optical doublet lines can exhibit strong fill-in or emission cores for our latest spectral types. On the other hand, the near-infrared doublet lines very rarely show correlation or anti-correlation to Ha and do not change line shape significantly even during the strongest observed flares. Nevertheless, the near-infrared doublet lines show notable resolved Zeeman splitting for about 20 active stars which allows to estimate the magnetic fields B.
© ESO 2022. Artículo firmado por 23 autores. B.F. acknowledges funding by the DFG under Schm 1032/69-1. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico HispanoAlemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almeria, Spain). D.S. acknowledges the financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709) We acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019-109522GBC5[1:4]/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 PGC2018-098153-B-C33 and the Centre of Excellence "Severo Ochoa" and "María de Maeztu" awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (CEX2019-000920-S), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-20170737), and the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Konigstuhl, Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Institut fur Astrophysik Gottingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 "Blue Planets around Red Stars", the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Wurttemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía.