Publication: Detection of iron emission lines and a temperature inversion on the dayside of the ultra-hot Jupiter KELT-20b
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Ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs) are gas giants with very high equilibrium temperatures. In recent years, multiple chemical species, including various atoms and ions, have been discovered in their atmospheres. Most of these observations have been performed with transmission spectroscopy, although UHJs are also ideal targets for emission spectroscopy due to their strong thermal radiation. We present highresolution thermal emission spectroscopy of the transiting UHJ KELT-20b/MASCARA-2b. The observation was performed with the CARMENES spectrograph at orbital phases before and after the secondary eclipse. We detected atomic Fe using the cross-correlation technique. The detected Fe lines are in emission, which unambiguously indicates a temperature inversion on the dayside hemisphere. We furthermore retrieved the temperature structure with the detected Fe lines. The result shows that the atmosphere has a strong temperature inversion with a temperature of 4900 +/- 700 K and a pressure of 10-4.8(-1.1)(+1.0) bar at the upper layer of the inversion. A joint retrieval of the CARMENES data and the TESS secondary eclipse data returns a temperature of 2550(-250)(+150) K and a pressure of 10(-1.5-0.6+0.7 )bar at the lower layer of the temperature inversion. The detection of such a strong temperature inversion is consistent with theoretical simulations that predict an inversion layer on the dayside of UHJs. The joint retrieval of the CARMENES and TESS data demonstrates the power of combing high-resolution emission spectroscopy with secondary eclipse photometry in characterizing atmospheric temperature structures.
© ESO 2022. Artículo firmado por 28 autores. We thank the referee for the useful comments. F.Y. acknowledges the support of the DFG Research Unit FOR2544 "Blue Planets around Red Stars" (RE 1664/21-1). CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almeria, Spain), operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). CARMENES was funded by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through projects FICTS-2011-02, ICTS-2017-07-CAHA-4, and CAHA16-CE-3978, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Konigstuhl, Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Institut fur Astrophysik Gottingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the MINECO, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and Research Unit FOR2544 "Blue Planets around Red Stars", the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Wurttemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucia. Based on data from the CARMENES data archive at CAB (CSIC-INTA). We acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019-109522GB-C51/2/3/4, PGC2018-098153-B-C33, AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R and the Centre of Excellence "Severo Ochoa" and "María de Maeztu" awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), and the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. T.H. and P.M. acknowledge support from the European Research Council under the Horizon 2020 Framework Program via the ERC Advanced Grant Origins 83 24 28. N.C. and A.S.L. acknowledge funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 694513.