Targeting lung macrophages for fungal and parasitic pulmonary infections with innovative amphotericin B dry powder inhalers

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The incidence of fungal pulmonary infections is known to be on the increase, and yet there is an alarming gap in terms of marketed antifungal therapies that are available for pulmonary administration. Amphotericin B (AmB) is a highly efficient broad-spectrum antifungal only marketed as an intravenous formulation. Based on the lack of effective antifungal and antiparasitic pulmonary treatments, the aim of this study was to develop a carbohydrate-based AmB dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation, prepared by spray drying. Amorphous AmB microparticles were developed by combining 39.7% AmB with 39.7% γ-cyclodextrin, 8.1% mannose and 12.5% leucine. An increase in the mannose concentration from 8.1 to 29.8%, led to partial drug crystallisation. Both formulations showed good in vitro lung deposition characteristics (80% FPF< 5 µm and MMAD < 3 µm) at different air flow rates (60 and 30 L/min) when used with a DPI, but also during nebulisation upon reconstitution in water.
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