Citizens’ Perception of COVID-19 Passport Usefulness: A Cross Sectional Study

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This paper assesses the influence on people’s perception of the utility of the immunity passport (IP) program by sociodemographic factors, infectivity status, and the objective of its use. The material of this paper is a cross-sectional survey of 400 residents in Spain. The relation between utility perception and input variables is fitted with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and linear quantile regression (LQR). The principal explanatory variable of usefulness perception is being vaccinated, especially when the objective of the IP is regulating mobility. The OLS estimate of the coefficient regression is (cr) = 0.415 (p = 0.001). We also found a positive and significant influence of that factor in all LQRs (cr = 0.652, p = 0.0026 at level (τ) = 0.75; cr = 0.482, p = 0.0047 at τ = 0.5 and cr = 0.201, p = 0.0385 at τ = 0.25). When the objective of the IP is regulating leisure, being vaccinated is relevant only to explain the central measures of usefulness perception. If the IP is used to regulate traveling, variables related to interviewees’ infectivity have greater relevance than sociodemographic factors. When its objective is ruling assembly, the more important variables than being vaccinated are gender and age. To create an effective implementation of the IP, it is advisable to have a general agreement among the population on its convenience. Therefore, the findings in this study have important implications for public health decision-makers.
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