The widest broadband transmission spectrum (0.38-1.71 mu m) of HD 189733b from ground-based chromatic Rossiter-McLaughlin observations

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Multiband photometric transit observations (spectro-photometric) have been used mostly so far to retrieve broadband transmission spectra of transiting exoplanets in order to study their atmospheres. An alternative method was proposed, and has only been used once, to recover broadband transmission spectra using chromatic Rossiter–McLaughlin observations. We use the chromatic Rossiter– McLaughlin technique on archival and new observational data obtained with the HARPS and CARMENES instruments to retrieve transmission spectra of HD 189733b. The combined results cover the widest retrieved broadband transmission spectrum of an exoplanet obtained from ground-based observation. Our retrieved spectrum in the visible wavelength range shows the signature of a hazy atmosphere, and also includes an indication for the presence of sodium and potassium. These findings all agree with previous studies. The combined visible and near-infrared transmission spectrum exhibits a strong steep slope that may have several origins, such as a super-Rayleigh slope in the atmosphere of HD 189733b, an unknown systematic instrumental offset between the visible and nearinfrared, or a strong stellar activity contamination. The host star is indeed known to be very active and might easily generate spurious features in the retrieved transmission spectra. Using our CARMENES observations, we assessed this scenario and place an informative constraint on some properties of the active regions of HD 189733. We demonstrate that the presence of starspots on HD 189733 can easily explain our observed strong slope in the broadband transmission spectrum.
Artículo firmado por 25 autores. © ESO 2020. M.O. acknowledges the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) priority program SPP 1992 “Exploring the Diversity of Extrasolar Planets (RE 1664/17-1)”. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). CARMENES was funded by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through projects FICTS-2011-02, ICTS-2017-07-CAHA-4, and CAHA16-CE-3978, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the MINECO, the DFG through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. Based on data from the CARMENES data archive at CAB (CSIC-INTA). We acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019-109522GB-C51/2/3/4 PGC2018- 098153-B-C33 AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, and the Centre of Excellence “Severo Ochoa” and “María de Maeztu” awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), and the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. We thank the anonymous referee for insightful suggestions, which added the clarity of this paper. Would also dedicate this work to my dear father.
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