Publication: Substrates of the MAPK Slt2: Shaping Yeast Cell Integrity
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The cell wall integrity (CWI) MAPK pathway of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is specialized in responding to cell wall damage, but ongoing research shows that it participates in many other stressful conditions, suggesting that it has functional diversity. The output of this pathway is mainly driven by the activity of the MAPK Slt2, which regulates important processes for yeast physiology such as fine-tuning of signaling through the CWI and other pathways, transcriptional activation in response to cell wall damage, cell cycle, or determination of the fate of some organelles. To this end, Slt2 precisely phosphorylates protein substrates, modulating their activity, stability, protein interaction, and subcellular localization. Here, after recapitulating the methods that have been employed in the discovery of proteins phosphorylated by Slt2, we review the bona fide substrates of this MAPK and the growing set of candidates still to be confirmed. In the context of the complexity of MAPK signaling regulation, we discuss how Slt2 determines yeast cell integrity through phosphorylation of these substrates. Increasing data from large-scale analyses and the available methodological approaches pave the road to early identification of new Slt2 substrates and functions.