Lack of a Synergistic Effect on Cardiometabolic and Redox Markers in a Dietary Supplementation with Anthocyanins and Xanthophylls in Postmenopausal Women

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Fruits and vegetables are pivotal for a healthy diet due partly to their content in bioactive compounds. It is for this reason that we conducted a parallel study to unravel the possible effect on cardiometabolic parameters of the ingestion of anthocyanins, xanthophylls, or both groups of bioactives together in postmenopausal women. Seventy-two postmenopausal women were randomized into an 8-month parallel study: a group consuming 60 mg/day anthocyanins (Group A), a group consuming 6 mg lutein and 2 mg zeaxanthin per day (Group X), and a third group consuming a combination of anthocyanins and xanthophylls in the same amounts (Group A+X). Non-targeted metabolomic analysis was done in plasma samples at baseline and after the 8-month intervention by HPLC-QTOF-MS. Inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardiometabolic parameters were measured at the beginning of the study and after 4 and 8-months intervention. Compared with baseline values, none of the 8-month treatments significantly (p < 0.05) changed systolic or diastolic blood pressure (BP), plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. Only plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased by treatment A+X after 8 months, and the plasma metabolomic profile was clearly affected by all three dietary supplementations after 8 months. In parallel, there was an increase, also for the three groups, in the plasma ferric reducing antioxidant power value that did not show any synergistic effect between the two groups of bioactives. Postmenopausal women could benefit from an increase in anthocyanins and xanthophylls intake, through the consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in these two types of compounds. Accordingly, plasma glucose and, above all, the reducing power in plasma, could be improved.