Surface wind over Europe: Data and variability

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This work improves the characterization and knowledge of the surface wind climatology over Europe with the development of an observational database with unprecedented quality control (QC), the European Surface Wind Observational database (EuSWiO). EuSWiO includes more than 3,829 stations with sub-daily resolution for wind speed and direction, with a number of sites spanning the period of 1880–2017, a few hundred time series starting in the 1930s and relatively good spatial coverage since the 1970s. The creation of EuSWiO entails the merging of eight different data sets and its submission to a common QC. About 5% of the total observations were flagged, correcting a great part of the extreme and unrealistic values, which have a discernible impact on the statistics of the database. The daily wind variability was characterized by means of a classification technique, identifying 11 independent subregions with distinct temporal wind variability over the 2000–2015 period. Significant decreases in the wind speed during this period are found in five regions, whereas two regions show increases. Most regions allow for extending the analysis to earlier decades. Caution in interpreting long-term trends is needed as wind speed data have not been homogenized. Nevertheless, decreases in the wind speed since the 1980s can be noticed in most of the regions. This work contributes to a deeper understanding of the temporal and spatial surface wind variability in Europe. It will allow from meteorological to climate and climate change studies, including potential applications to the analyses of extreme events, wind power assessments or the evaluation of reanalysis or model-data comparison exercises at continental scales.
CRUE-CSIC (Acuerdos Transformativos 2022). © 2022 The Authors. CRL was supported by the NEWA ERANET project (PCIN-2014-015-C07-06, PCIN-2016-009) and 18 ROJAS-LABANDA ET AL. GReatModelS RTI2018-102305- B-C21 from MINECO. This research has been conducted under the Joint Research Unit between UCM and CIEMAT, by the Collaboration Agreement 7158/ 2016. We acknowledge the data providers in the ECA&D project, the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, the Deutscher Wetterdienst and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Initial and future versions of the EuSWiO will be made available under the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (
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