Physical activity among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain (2014-2020): Temporal trends, sex differences, and associated factors

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Objectives: To evaluate trends in the prevalence of physical activity (PA) from 2014 to 2020; to identify sex differences and sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with PA in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); and to compare PA between individuals with and without COPD. Methods: Cross-sectional and case-control study. Source: European Health Interview Surveys for Spain (EHISS) conducted in 2014 and 2020. We included sociodemographic and health-related covariates. We compared individuals with and without COPD after matching for age and sex. Results: The number of adults with COPD was 1086 and 910 in EHISS2014 and EHISS2020, respectively. In this population, self-reported “Medium or high frequency of PA” remained stable (42.9% in 2014 and 43.5% in 2020; p = 0.779). However, the percentage who walked on two or more days per week rose significantly over time (63.4%–69.9%; p = 0.004). Men with COPD reported more PA than women with COPD in both surveys. After matching, significantly lower levels of PA were recorded in COPD patients than in adults without COPD. Multivariable logistic regression confirmed this trend in COPD patients and showed that male sex, younger age, higher educational level, very good/good self-perceived health, and absence of comorbidities, obesity, and smoking were associated with more frequent PA. Conclusions: The temporal trend in PA among Spanish adults with COPD is favorable, although there is much room for improvement. Insufficient PA is more prevalent in these patients than in the general population. Sex differences were found, with significantly more frequent PA among males with COPD