Differences in Nutritional Status and Inflammatory Biomarkers between Female and Male Patients with Bronchiectasis: A Large-Cohort Study

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We hypothesized that systemic inflammatory and nutritional parameters may differ between male and female patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. In a large patient cohort from the Spanish Online Bronchiectasis Registry (RIBRON), clinical features, systemic inflammatory and nutritional parameters were analyzed in male and female patients with bronchiectasis. Lung function, disease severity using several scores, nutritional status, systemic inflammatory parameters, and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify differences between male and female patients in the target variables. The number of female patients included in the registry was greater than male patients and they had a less severe disease as measured by all three indices of disease severity, a lower degree of airway obstruction, worse diffusion capacity and airway trapping, better nutritional parameters, and lower levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Multivariate regression analysis evidenced that strong relationships were found between female gender and the following variables: total numbers of leukocytes and neutrophils, hemoglobin, hematocrit, creatinine, and body mass index (BMI). Multivariate regression analyses evidenced that nutritional parameters and inflammatory biomarkers may be reliable indicators of gender-related differences in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. These findings deserve further attention in follow-up investigations in which the potential predictive value of those biomarkers should be thoroughly explored.