Cutting-Edge Advances in Electrochemical Affinity Biosensing at Different Molecular Level of Emerging Food Allergens and Adulterants

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Campuzano Ruiz, Susana
Ruiz Valdepeñas Montiel, Víctor
Serafín González-Carrato, Verónica
Pingarrón Carrazón, José Manuel
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The presence of allergens and adulterants in food, which represents a real threat to sensitized people and a loss of consumer confidence, is one of the main current problems facing society. The detection of allergens and adulterants in food, mainly at the genetic level (characteristic fragments of genes that encode their expression) or at functional level (protein biomarkers) is a complex task due to the natural interference of the matrix and the low concentration at which they are present. Methods for the analysis of allergens are mainly divided into immunological and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based assays. In recent years, electrochemical affinity biosensors, including immunosensors and biosensors based on synthetic sequences of DNA or ribonucleic acid (RNA), linear, aptameric, peptide or switch-based probes, are gaining special importance in this field because they have proved to be competitive with the methods commonly used in terms of simplicity, test time and applicability in different environments. These unique features make them highly promising analytical tools for routine determination of allergens and food adulterations at the point of care. This review article discusses the most significant trends and developments in electrochemical affinity biosensing in this field over the past two years as well as the challenges and future prospects for this technology.