The CALIFA survey across the Hubble sequence: Spatially resolved stellar population properties in galaxies

dc.contributor.authorMarino, Raffaella Anna
dc.contributor.authorotros, ...
dc.descriptionArtículo firmado por 34 autores. © ESO, 2015. CALIFA is the first legacy survey carried out at Calar Alto. The CALIFA collaboration would like to thank the IAA-CSIC and MPIA-MPG as major partners of the observatory, and CAHA itself, for the unique access to telescope time and support in manpower and infrastructures. We also thank the CAHA staff for the dedication to this project. Support from the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, through projects AYA2010-15081 (PI R.G.D.), and Junta de Andalucía FQ1580 (PI R.G.D.), AYA2010-22111-C03-03, and AYA2010-10904E (S.F.S.). We also thank the Viabilidad, Diseño, Acceso y Mejora funding program, ICTS-2009-10, for funding the data acquisition of this project. R.C.F. thanks the hospitality of the IAA and the support of CAPES and CNPq. R.G.D. acknowledges the support of CNPq (Brazil) through Programa Ciencia sem Fronteiras (401452/2012-3). A.G. acknowledges support from EU FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n.267251 (AstroFIt) and from the EU Marie Curie Integration Grant "SteMaGE" Nr. PCIG12-GA-2012-326466. C.J.W. acknowledges support through the Marie Curie Career Integration Grant 303912. E.P. acknowledges support from the Guillermo Haro program at INAOE. Support for L.G. is provided by the Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative through grant IC120009, awarded to The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, MAS. L.G. acknowledges support by CONICYT through FONDECYT grant 3140566. J.I.P. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish MINECO under grant AYA2010-21887-C04-01 and from Junta de Andalucía Excellence Project PEX2011-FQM7058. I.M., J.M. and A.d.O. acknowledge support from the project AYA2013-42227-P. RAM is funded by the Spanish program of International Campus of Excellence Moncloa (CEI). J.M. A. acknowledges support from the European Research Council Starting Grant (SEDmorph; P.I. V. Wild)
dc.description.abstractVarious different physical processes contribute to the star formation and stellar mass assembly histories of galaxies. One important approach to understanding the significance of these different processes on galaxy evolution is the study of the stellar population content of today's galaxies in a spatially resolved manner. The aim of this paper is to characterize in detail the radial structure of stellar population properties of galaxies in the nearby universe, based on a uniquely large galaxy sample, considering the quality and coverage of the data. The sample under study was drawn from the CALIFA survey and contains 300 galaxies observed with integral field spectroscopy. These cover a wide range of Hubble types, from spheroids to spiral galaxies, while stellar masses range from M_* ∼ 10^9 to 7 x 10^11 M_⨀. We apply the fossil record method based on spectral synthesis techniques to recover the following physical properties for each spatial resolution element in our target galaxies: the stellar mass surface density (μ_*), stellar extinction (A_V), light-weighted and mass-weighted ages (<log age>_L, <log age>_M), and mass-weighted metallicity (<log Z_*>_M). To study mean trends with overall galaxy properties, the individual radial profiles are stacked in seven bins of galaxy morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc, and Sd). We confirm that more massive galaxies are more compact, older, more metal rich, and less reddened by dust. Additionally, we find that these trends are preserved spatially with the radial distance to the nucleus. Deviations from these relations appear correlated with Hubble type: earlier types are more compact, older, and more metal rich for a given M-star, which is evidence that quenching is related to morphology, but not driven by mass. Negative gradients of <log age>_L are consistent with an inside-out growth of galaxies, with the largest <log age>_L gradients in Sb-Sbc galaxies. Further, the mean stellar ages of disks and bulges are correlated and with disks covering a wider range of ages, and late-type spirals hosting younger disks. However, age gradients are only mildly negative or flat beyond R∼2 HLR (half light radius), indicating that star formation is more uniformly distributed or that stellar migration is important at these distances. The gradients in stellar mass surface density depend mostly on stellar mass, in the sense that more massive galaxies are more centrally concentrated. Whatever sets the concentration indices of galaxies obviously depends less on quenching/morphology than on the depth of the potential well. There is a secondary correlation in the sense that at the same M_* early-type galaxies have steeper gradients. The μ_* gradients outside 1 HLR show no dependence on Hubble type. We find mildly negative <log Z_*>_M gradients, which are shallower than predicted from models of galaxy evolution in isolation. In general, metallicity gradients depend on stellar mass, and less on morphology, hinting that metallicity is affected by both - the depth of the potential well and morphology/quenching. Thus, the largest <log Z_*>_M gradients occur in Milky Way-like Sb-Sbc galaxies, and are similar to those measured above the Galactic disk. Sc spirals show flatter < log Z(star)>_M gradients, possibly indicating a larger contribution from secular evolution in disks. The galaxies from the sample have decreasing-outward stellar extinction; all spirals show similar radial profiles, independent from the stellar mass, but redder than E and S0. Overall, we conclude that quenching processes act in manners that are independent of mass, while metallicity and galaxy structure are influenced by mass-dependent processes.
dc.description.departmentDepto. de Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica
dc.description.facultyFac. de Ciencias Físicas
dc.description.sponsorshipUnión Europea. FP7
dc.description.sponsorshipJunta de Andalucía
dc.description.sponsorshipMinisterio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO), España
dc.description.sponsorshipSubprograma de diseño, viabilidad, acceso y mejora de Instalaciones Científicas y Técnicas Singulares (ICTS), MINECO, España
dc.description.sponsorshipFundaçao CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior), Brasil
dc.description.sponsorshipConselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (CNPq), Brasil
dc.description.sponsorshipPrograma Ciencia sem Fronteiras (CNPq, Brazil)
dc.description.sponsorshipMarie Curie Career Integration Grants
dc.description.sponsorshipGuillermo Haro program at INAOE
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative
dc.description.sponsorshipConsejos Superiores de Fondecyt de la Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT), Chile
dc.description.sponsorshipFondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT ), Chile
dc.description.sponsorshipCampus de Excelencia Internacional (CEI) Moncloa, España
dc.description.sponsorshipEuropean Research Council (ERC)
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistério da Educação (MEC), Brasil
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dc.journal.titleAstronomy & Astrophysics
dc.publisherEDP Sciencies
dc.relation.projectIDAstroFIt (267251)
dc.relation.projectIDSFEHG (303912)
dc.relation.projectIDSteMaGE (326466)
dc.rights.accessRightsopen access
dc.subject.keywordStar-formation history
dc.subject.keywordDigital sky survey
dc.subject.keywordSimilar-to 2
dc.subject.keywordInside-out growth
dc.subject.keywordField area survey
dc.subject.keywordPotsdam multiaperture spectrophotometer
dc.subject.keywordMass-metallicity relation
dc.subject.keywordMilky-way disk
dc.subject.keywordElliptic galaxies
dc.subject.keywordEvolutionary sequences
dc.subject.ucmAstronomía (Física)
dc.titleThe CALIFA survey across the Hubble sequence: Spatially resolved stellar population properties in galaxies
dc.typejournal article
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