Publication:
Economía del terrorismo: teoría y aplicaciones

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Official URL
Full text at PDC
Publication Date
2009
Authors
Buesa Blanco, Mikel
Baumert, Thomas
Heijs, Joost
Advisors (or tutors)
Editors
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
Instituto de Análisis Industrial y Financiero (IAIF)
Citations
Google Scholar
Research Projects
Organizational Units
Journal Issue
Abstract
En este artículo se presenta un resumen de la literatura económica sobre el terrorismo. Tras una revisión de los conceptos del terrorismo y de la presentación y análisis de las principales fuentes de datos utilizadas en la literatura, se recogen las principales argumentaciones sobre las causas del terrorismo desde el punto de vista económico, los análisis realizados sobre la financiación del terrorismo y sobre los efectos económicos del mismo, así como las valoraciones de las políticas contra el terrorismo desde la visión de los economistas. Para terminar se plantean algunas de las líneas de avance de la investigación en esta área.
In this article, we present an overview of the economic literature about terrorism. After a revision of the terrorism concepts and the main data sources, we show the more important explanations about the causes of terrorism from the economic point of view, the studies about the financial terrorism and about his economics effects, also the economic valuations of the counterterrorism policies. In conclusion we present some of the research areas that need improvements.
Description
Keywords
Citation
Abadie, A. (2004) Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism. Working Paper No. 10859. NBER. http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~aabadie/povterr.pdf . Abadie, Alberto (2006), “Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism," American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings 96(2), 50-56. Abadie, A. and Gardeazabal, J. (2003) “The Economic Costs of Conflict: A Case Study of the Basque Country," American Economic Review, vol. 93(1), pp. 113-131, March. Abadie, A. and J. Gardeazabal.( 2007). “Terrorism and the World Economy.” Mimeo. Harvard University. http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~aabadie/twe.pdf. Addison (2003) From Conflict to Recovery in Africa. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Alesina, A.; Ä Ozler, S.; Roubini, N., and Swagel, P. (1996) “Political Instability and Economic Growth." Journal of Economic Growth, vol. 1, pp. 189-211, 1996. Alesina, A., Devleeschauwer, A., Easterly, W., Kurlat, S., and R.Wacziarg, (2003) “Fractionalization," Journal of Economic Growth, vol. 8, pp. 155-194. Amin, S. Massoud, and Clark W. Gellings,(2005) “The North American Power Delivery System: Balancing Market Restructuring and Environmental Economics with Infrastructure Security,” Energy, Vol. 31, No. 6–7, 2005, pp. 967–999. Arce M., Daniel G., and Todd Sandler. (2005). Counterterrorism: A gametheoretic analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (2): 183-200. Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2004), Combating Terrorism in the Transport Sector: Economic Costs and Benefits, Canberra: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Economic Analytical Unit. Aziz, H. (1995) “Understanding Attacks on Tourist in Egypt” Tourism Management, vol.16,nº 2 , pp. 91-95. Baily, M.N. (2001) “Economic Policy Following the Terrorist Attacks”. Institute for International Economics, Washington D.C. Barros, Carlos P., and Isabel Proença. (2005). “Mixed logit estimation of radical Islamic terrorism in Europe and North America: A comparative study”. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (2): 298-314. Baumert, T (2008) “Terrorism, news flows and stock markets” en Global Business and Terrorism, H. Richardson, P. Gordon & J. Moore (eds.), Edward Elgar Publishing Company, Cheltenhan, UK. (en prensa). Becker, Gary S. (1968) ‘Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach’, Journal of Political Economy 76: 169-217. Benmelech, E.and Berrebi C. (2007) Attack Assignments in Terror Organizations and the Productivity of Suicide Bombers. NBER Working Paper nº W12910 Bentham, J. (1843), "Principles of penal law", in Bowring, J. (Eds), The Works of Jeremy Bentham, W. Tait, Edinburgh. Berger, Helge and Sturm,Jan-Egbert (2005) “Assesing the cost of T.errorism: On the impact of terror-news on the German Economy” Media Tenor Quarterly Journal 1/2005 pp. 54-56. Berman, Eli and Laitin, David, (2008) "Religion, Terrorism and Public Goods: Testing the Club Model" (January). NBER Working Paper No. W13725. Berrebi, C. and E.F. Klor. 2005. “The Impact of Terrorism Across Industries: An Empirical Study.” CEPR Discussion Paper No. 5360. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research. Blomberg, B.; Hess, G. and Orphanides, A. (2004) “The Macroeconomic consequences of terrorism” Journal of monetary economics, vol 51, nº 5 pp. 1007-1032. Blomberg, S.B.; Hess, G. and Weerapana (2004) “Economic Conditions and terrorism” European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 20, nº 2,pp. vol.20,nº 2 pp.463-478. Blomberg, S.B., G. Hess, and A. Weerapana.( 2004b). “An Economic Model of Terrorism.” Conflict Management and Peace Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 17-28. Blomberg, Stephen Brock and Sheppard, Stephen.(2007) The Impacts of Terrorism on Urban Form Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs - 2007, pp. 257-290. Blunk, Scott S; Clark, David E. and McGuibany, James M. (2006) “Evaluating the Long-Run Impacs of the 9/11 Terrorists Attacks on US Domestic Airline Travel”, Applied Economics, vol. 38, nº 4, 2006,pp.363-370. Bram, J., A. Haughwout, and J. Orr. (2002). “Has September 11 Affected New York City’s Growth Potential?” Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 81-96. Brown, J., Cummins, J.D., Lewis, C., & Wei, R. (2004). An empirical analysis of the economic impact of federal terrorism reinsurance. Journal of Monetary Economics, 51(1), 861–898. Brown, W. and Reynolds, M. (1973), “Crime and punishment: Risk implications”. Journal of Economic Theory 6, 508-14. Brück, T. (2004) An Economic Analysis of Security Policies. Discussion Papers. German Institute for Economic Research. Bueno de Mesquita, Ethan. (2005). The terrorist endgame: A model with moral hazard and learning. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (2): 237-58. Buesa, M. (dr.) (2004) Economía de la Secesión. El proyecto Nacionalista Vasco. Instituto de Estudios Fiscales. Ministerio de Hacienda. Madrid. Muesa, M (2005) Guerra y terrorismo: el modelo de economía depredadora de la guerra. Instituto de Análisis Industrial y Financiero. Universidad Complutense. Documento de Trabajo nº 50 2005. Buesa, M.(2006) Consecuencias económicas del terrorismo nacionalista en el País Vasco: Instituto de Análisis Industrial y Financiero. Universidad Complutense, Documento de Trabajo nº 53, Madrid, enero. Buesa, M (2007) “ETA y la financiación del Terrorismo” diario ABC. 17- 10-2007. Buesa, M; Baumert, T;Valiño, A.; Heijs J and González J. (2007) “The impact of terrorist attacks on securities markets. A comparative study of the financial effects of the Islamist attacks in New York, Madrid and London” Información Comercial Española nº 835 pp. 253- 272. Buesa, M; Valiño, A.; Baumert, T; Heijs J and González J.(2007) “The Economic Cost of March 11: Measuring the Direct Economic Cost of the Terrorist Attack on March 11, 2004 in Madrid “ Terrorism and Political Violence.nº 19(4) pp. 489 – 509. Cardero, N. ( 2005) “El poder de la marca Al Qaeda”, La Clave, nº 26, 1 de septiembre de 2005, páginas 6-11. Carter, D. A. and Simkins, B.J. (2002) “Do Market react rationally?. The effect of the September 11th Tragedy on airline stock returns” Working paper 26. Department of Finance, College of Business Administration, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. Carter, D. y Simkins, B. (2004): «The Market’s Reaction to Unexpected, Catastrophic Events: The Case of Airline Stocks Returns and the September 11th Attacks», The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 44, páginas 539-558. Cátedra de Economía del Terrorismo (CET) (2008) Actividades terroristas de ETA y política antiterrorista. Información Estadística (edición: Enero, 2008), CET, Madrid. www.ucm.es/info/cet. Cauley, Jon & Im, Eric Iksoon, (1988). "Intervention Policy Analysis of Skyjackings and Other Terrorist Incidents," American Economic Review, vol. 78(2), pages 27-31, May ⎯ Cave, (2001) “Did Bin Laden cash in before terrorist attack?”, The Telegraph, 18 de septiembre de 2001. Chang, Stephanie E., Timothy L. McDaniels, and Dorothy Reed, (2005) “Mitigation of Extreme Event Risks: Electric Power Outage and Infrastructure Failure Interactions,” in Harry Ward Richardson, Peter Gordon, and James Elliott Moore, eds., The Economic Impacts of Terrorist Attacks, Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar, 2005, pp. 70–90. Charney, C. and Yakatan, N. (2005) “A New Beginning: Strategies for a More Fruitful Dialogue with the Nuslim World” CRS nº 7, may. New York: Council of Foreing Relations. Chen AH and Siems TF 2004 “The effects of Terrorism on Global Capital Markets” European journal of Political Economy, vol 20, nº 2 ,pp349-366. Choudhry, T. (2005): «September 11 and Time-varying Beta of United States Companies», Applied Financial Economics, volumen 15/17, páginas 1227-1242. Collier, P. and A. Hoeffer, (2004) “Greed and Grievance in Civil War," Oxford Economic Papers, vol.56, pp. 563-595. Consejo de Seguridad. Naciones Unidas (2006) Quinto informe del Equipo encargado de prestar apoyo analítico y vigilar la aplicación de la sanciones establecido en virtud de las resoluciones 1526 (2004) y 1617(2005) del Consejo de Seguridad relativas a Al Qaida y los talibanes y personas y entidades asociadas. S/2006/750. Nueva York. Cotte Poveda, A. (2003) Violencia, política Económica y crecimiento económico en Colombia. Universidad del Valle, Cali. Crain, Nicole V. and Crain, W. Mark (2006) Terrorized economies. Public Choice 128, pp.317–349. Crenshaw, M. (1981) “The Causes of Terrorism” Comparative Politics, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 379-399. Cummins, J.D. and C.M. Lewis. 2003. “Catastrophic Events, Parameter Uncertainty and the Breakdown of Implicit Long-Term Contracting: The Case of Terrorism Insurance.” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Vol. 26, No. 2-3, pp. 153-178. Czinota, Michael, and Gary Knight (2005) “Managing the Terrorist Threat” European Business Forum, vol 20, Winter 2005, pp.42-45. Dixon, Lloyd and Stern, Rachel K. (2004) Compensation for Losses from the 9/11 Attacks, Santa Monica, RAND Corporation,MG-264-ICJ, 2004.-http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG264/. Doyle, Rodger, (2003), 'By the numbers - Fundamentalism'. Scientific American, March 2003. p. 15. Drakos and Kutan (2003) “Regional Effects of Terrorism on tourism in three Mediterranean Countries” Journal of Conflict Resolution vol 47 nº 5 pp 621-641. Drakos, K. 2004. “Terrorism-Induced Structural Shifts in Financial Risk: Airline Stocks in the Aftermath of the September 11th Terror Attacks.” European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 435-446. Dugan, L.; LaFree, G. and Fogg, H. (2006) A First Look at Domestic and International Global Terrorism Events, 1970-1997. Department of Criminology and the National Center for the Study of Terrorism and the Response to Terrorism, University of Maryland. Dworkin, Andrea, (1997), Life and Death. New York: The Free press. Eckstein, Zvi & Tsiddon, Daniel, (2004) "Macroeconomic consequences of terror: theory and the case of Israel," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(5), pages 971-1002, July. Eichenbaum, M. and J. D. M. Fisher. 2004. “Fiscal Policy in the Aftermath of 9/11.” NBER Working Paper No. W10430. Cambridge, MA: NBER. Eldor and Melnick 2004 Finacial Markets and Terrorism European Journal of Political Economy vol. 20, nº2 pp367- 386. Enders, W. and T. Sandler. (1991). “Causality between Transnational Terrorism andTourism: The Case of Spain.” Terrorism, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 49-58. Enders,Walter, and Todd Sandler. (1993). The effectiveness of anti-terrorism politics:Vector-autoregression intervention analysis. American Political Science Review 87 (4): 829-44. Enders, W. and T. Sandler. (1996). “Terrorism and Foreign Direct Investment in Spain and Greece.” Kyklos, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 331-352. Enders,Walter, and Todd Sandler. (2000). Is transnational terrorism becoming more threatening? A time-series investigation. Journal of Conflict Resolution 44 (3): 307-32. Enders and Sandler (2002) An Economic Perspective On Transnational Terrorism http://www.ecaar.org/Articles/SandlerDIW.pdf . Enders,W. and Sandler (2004) Transnational Terrorism: An Economic Analysis. Working Paper University of Southern California. Enders,Walter, and Todd Sandler .( 2005). After 9/11: Is it all different now? Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (2): 259-77. Enders, W. and T. Sandler. (2006). The Political Economy of Terrorism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Enders, Walter, Todd Sandler, and Gerald F. Parise, (1992)“An Econometric Analysis of the Impact of Terrorism on Tourism,” Kyklos, Vol. 45, 1992, pp. 531–554. Enders, Walter, Todd Sandler, and Jon Cauley. (1990). “UN Conventions, Technology and Retaliation in the Fight against Terrorism: An Econometric Evaluation,” Terrorism and Political Violence, 2, 83−105. Engene, Jan Oskar (2004): Terrorism in Western Europe. Explaining the trends since 1950. Edward Elgar. Engene, Jan Oskar (2007): "Five Decades of Terrorism in Europe: The TWEED Dataset", Journal of Peace Research, vol. 44, no. 1, 2007, pp. 109–121. Eubank,William L., and Leonard B.Weinberg. (1994). Does democracy encourage terrorism? Terrorism and Political Violence 6 (4): 417-35. Eubank,William L., and Leonard B.Weinberg.( 2001). Terrorism and democracy: Perpetrators and victims. Terrorism and Political Violence 13 (1): 155-64. Fearon, J. D. and Laitin, D. D. (1996), 'Explaining interethnic cooperation'. The American Political Science Review, 90(4):715-735. Fearon, J.D. and D.D. Laitin, (2003) “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War," American Political Science Review, vol. 97(1), pp. 75-90. Ferrero, M. (2006) “Martyrdom Contracts” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 50, No. 6, 855-877. Fielding, D. (2003b). “Modeling Political Instability and Economic Performance: Israeli Investment During the Intifada.” Economica, Vol. 70, No. 277, pp. 159-186. Fitzgerald, V. (2004). “Global Financial Information, Compliance Incentives and Terrorist Funding.” European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 387-401. Fleischer, A. and S. Buccola.( 2002). “War, Terror and the Tourism Market in Israel.” Applied Economics, Vol. 34, No. 11, pp. 1335-1343. Fletcher, G.P. (2006) The indefinable Concept of Terrorism. Journal of International Criminal Justice. December 4. Fowler, W.W. (1981) “Terrorism Data Bases. A Comparison of Missions, Methods and Systems. Rand Corporation http://www.rand.org/pubs/notes/2005/N1503.pdf. Freeman, R.B., (1999), “The Economics of Crime”, in O.C. Ashenfelter, O.C. and Card D. (eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics. North-Holland, pp. 3529-3571. Frey, B.S. and S. Luechinger. (2003). “How to Fight Terrorism: Alternatives to Deterrence.” Defense and Peace Economics, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 237-249. Frey, B.S. and S. Luechinger. (2004). “Decentralization as a Disincentive for Terror.” European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 509-551. Frey, B.S., (2004) Dealing with Terrorism : Stick or Carrot?, Edward Elgar, Cheltenhan UK, 2004. Frey, B.S. y Rohner, D. (2006) Blood and Ink! The common- interest-game between terrorist and the media. CREMA. Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts. Working Paper 2006-08. http://www.cremaresearch.ch/papers/2006-08.pdf. Frey, B.S., S. Luechinger, and A. Stutzer, (2004) “Calculating Tragedy: Assessing the Costs of Terrorism," mimeo, July 2004. Frey, Bruno S., Simon Luechinger and Alois Stutzer (2007), Calculating Tragedy: Assessing the Costs of Terrorism," Journal of Economic Surveys 21(1), 1-24. Frey, R.G. and Morris, CH. W. (1991) Violence, Terrorism and Justice, edited by R. G. Frey and Christopher W. Morris (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press). Friedman, B. ( 2005). Homeland security, July/August, 2005 Foreign Policy. 149 : 22-28. Galtung, Johan, (2002), '11 September 2001: Diagnosis, Prognosis, Therapy'. In: Searching for peace - the road to TRANSCEND, Galtung, Johan, Jacobsen, Carl G. and Brand-Jacobsen, Kai Frithjof. London: Pluto Press. pp 87-102. Giacomello, G (2004) “A cost-benefit analysis of cyberterrorism” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol 27 (5), pp. 387-408. Gimenez-Salinas, A. (2007) Las finanzas del terrorismo de al-Qaida: una lucha desenfocada, Athena Paper, vol. 2, nº 22, diciembre (www.athenaintelligence.org). Glaeser, E.L. and J. M. Shapiro. (2002). “Cities and Warfare: The Impact of terrorism on Urban Form.” Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 51, No. 2 pp. 205-224. Glaeser, E.L.(2005) “The Political Economy of Hatred” Quaterly Journal of Economics, vol. 120,Issue1, pp. 45-86. Gordon, Peter, James E. Moore II, Harry W. Richardson, and Qisheng Pan, (2005) “The Economic Impact of a Terrorist Attack on the Twin Ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach,” in Harry Ward Richardson, Peter Gordon, and James Elliott Moore, The Economic Impacts of Terrorist Attacks, Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar, 2005, pp. 262–286. Guelke, Adrian, (1995), The age of terrorism and the international political system. London, UK. I.B. Tauris. 230p. Gupta, S., B. Clements, R. Bhattacharya, and S. Chakravarti. (2004). “Fiscal Consequences of Armed Conflict and Terrorism in Low and Middle Income Countries.” European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 403-421. Harrigan, J. and P. Martin. (2002). “Terrorism and the Resilience of Cities.” Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 2. pp. 97-116. Hayes, Brian, (2002), 'Computing Science - The statistics of deadly quarrels'. American Scientist, January-February 2002, 10-15. Heal, Geoffrey, and Howard Kunreuther.( 2005). IDS models of airline security. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (2): 201-17. Heitmeyer, W. and Hagan, J. (ed) (2003) International handbook of Violence Research. Springer. Hinojosa Martínez, Luis M. (2008) La financiación del terrorismo y las Naciones Unidas. Ed. Tecnos, Madrid. Hobjin, (2002); “What Will Homeland Security Cost? Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic policy Review. Hoffman, Bruce. (1997). “The Confluence of International and Domestic Trends in Terrorism.” Terrorism and Political Violence. 9:2, pp. 1-15. Hoffman, Bruce.( 1998). Inside terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press. Homer-Dixon, Thomas, (2002), “The Rise of Complex Terrorism”. Foreign Policy Magazine, January - February 2002. Hon, M.T; Strauss, J. and Yong S.K.(2004)” Contagion in Financial Markets After September 11 - Myth or Reality?” Journal of Financial Research, vol. 27, pp. 95-114. Hooper J. (2001), “Terror made fortune for Bin Laden”, The Guardian, 23 September 2001. Horgan J. (2005) The Psychology of Terrorism. Ed Routledge. Hudson, R.A and Majeska, M. (1999) “The Sociology And Psychology Of Terrorism: Who Becomes A Terrorist And Why?” Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, September 1999. Hunter (2004), Hunter, R, J. (2004) Testimony Before the Senate Banking Committee, available at: http://banking.senate.gov/_files/hunter.pdf. Im, Eric I., Jon Cauley, and Todd Sandler. (1987). “Cycles and Substitutions in Terrorist Activities: A Spectral Approach,” Kyklos, 40, 238−255. International Monetary Fund (IMF) ( 2001) ”Financial Abuse, Financial Crime and Money Laundering”, Backgorund paper. February, 12. www.imf.org/external/np/ml/2001/eng/021201.htm . International Monetary Fund, (2001) “How Has September 11 Influenced the Global Economy” chapter 2 in World Economic Outlook Washington. Ito, H. and Lee. D. (2005). “Assessing the Impact of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks on US Airline Demand.” Journal of Economics and Business, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 75-95. Jackson, Brian A.; Dixon, Lloyd; Greenfield, Victoria A. (2007) “Economically Targeted Terrorism”. Rand Corporation technical report series. RAND Center for Terrorism Risk Management Policy (CTRMP). Jaffee, D. and Russell, TH. (2005) Should governments Support the Private Terrorism Insurance Market?. Paper prepared for WRIEC conference, Salt Lake City, August 2005.mimeo. Johnston, R. B. y Nedelescu, O. M. (2005) “The Impact of Terrorism on Financial Markets”, IMF Working Paper WP 05/60, mars 2005. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2005/wp0560.pdf. Karolyi, George Andrew and Martell, Rodolfo,(2006) "Terrorism and the Stock Market" (June 2006). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=823465. Kristof, Nicholas, (2002), “What Does and Doesn't Fuel Terrorism”. Global Policy Forum - 9/11, 8-5-2002. http://www.globalpolicy.org/wtc/terrorism/2002/0509terr.htm. Krueger, Alan B. and Malecˇková, Jitka (2003) Education, Poverty and Terrorism: Is There a Causal Connection?. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Volume 17(4) Pages 119–144. LaFree,G.; Dugan L, Fogg,H.V., Scott,J. (2006) Building A Global Terrorism Database . University of Maryland April 27, 2006. Mimeo. Lakdawalla D. and Zanjani G. (2004) Insurance, self-protection, and the economics of terrorism. Journal of Monetary Economics 51 (2004) 861–898. Landes (1978) “An economic study of US aircraft hijackings, 1961-1976”. Journal of law and economics, 21:1, pp 1-31. Lave, Lester B., Jay Apt, Alex Farrell, and M. Granger Morgan, (2005) “Increasing the Security and Reliability of the US Electricity System,” in Harry Ward Richardson, Peter Gordon, and James Elliott Moore, eds., The Economic Impacts of Terrorist Attacks, Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, Mass.: 2005, pp. 57–69. Lenain, P., M. Bonturi, and V. Koen. (2002). “The Economic Consequences of Terrorism.” Working Paper 334. Paris: OECD. Lenain, P.; Bonturi, M. Koen,V. (2002) “The economic consequences of terrorism” OECD Working Paper 34. Paris. Li and Schaub (2004) “Economic Globalization and Transnational Terrorism: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis” Journal of Conflict Resolution.2004; 48: 230-258. Li, Quan. 2005. Does democracy promote or reduce transnational terrorist incidents? Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (2): 278-97. Lichbach, Mark Irving, (1989), 'An evaluation of "Does economic inequality breed political conflict?" studies', World Politics, 41(4), 431-470. Londoño de la Cuesta, J. and Guerrero, R. (2000) “Violencia en América Latina: Epidemiología y Costos,” in Juan Luis Londoño de la Cuesta, Alejandro Gaviria, and Rodrigo Guerrero, eds., Asalto al Desarrollo: Violencia en América Latina, Washington, D.C.: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, 2000, pp. 11–58. Lynch, T. (2005). The Patriot Act, Chapter 19, Cato Handbook on Policy, 6th ed. (2005). Cato Institute: Washington. Malik, O. (2001) “Enough of the Definition of Terrorism!” Royal Institute of International Affairs paper (London: RIIA, 2001). Melnick, R. and Eldor, R (2006) “Small Investment and Large Returns: Terrorism, Media and the Economy”. The Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya 46150. Israel. http://www.economics.smu.edu.sg/femes/2008/CS_Info/papers/13.pdf. Michel-Kerjan, E. and B. Pedell, (2005). Terrorism Risk Coverage in the Post-9/1 1 Era: A Comparison of New Public-Private Partnerships in France, Germany, and the U.S. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance 30, pp. 144-170. Mickolus, Edward F., Todd Sandler, and Jean M. Murdock. 1989. International terrorism in the 1980s: A chronology of events. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Mickolus, Edward F., Todd Sandler, Jean M. Murdock, and Peter Fleming. 2004. International terrorism:Attributes of terrorist events, 1968-2003 (ITERATE). Dunn Loring, VA: Vinyard Software. Miguel, E., Satyanath, S., and Sergenti, E. (2004) “Economic Shocks and Civil Conflict: An Instrumental Variables Approach," Journal of Political Economy, vol. 112(4), pp. 725-753. Mills, E.S. 2002. “Terrorism and U.S. Real Estate.” Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 198-204. Mueller, D. C. (2004). Rights and citizenship in a world of global terrorism. European Journal of Political Economy, 20 (2 ), 335-348. Mueller, J. ( 2004) A False Sense of Insecurity, How does the risk of terrorism measure up against everyday dangers? Regulation. Vol.27, No. 3, Fall 2004. Cato Institute. Napoleoni, L. (2004) Yihad. Cómo se financia el terrorismo en la nueva economía, Urano, Barcelona, 2004, página 279. Navarro and Spencer, (2001) “September2001: Assessing the cost of terrorism” Milken Institute Review, vol,2 pp. 16-31. Niskanen, William A. (2006) The several costs of responding to the threat of terrorism Public Choice (2006) 128:351–356. Nitsch, Volker and Schumacher, Dieter. (2004). “Terrorism and International Trade: An Empirical Investigation.” European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 423-433. OECD (2002) Economic Outlook, June. OECD( 2003) Security in Maritime Transport: Risk factors and Economic Impact, Report. July. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/19/61/18521672.pdf. OECD (2004). The Financial War on Terrorism. A Guide by the Financial Action Task Force. OECD. OECD (2005). Terrorism Risk Insurance in OECD Countries. OECD. Park, Jiyoung, Peter Gordon, James E. Moore, and Harry W. Richardson,(2006) “Simulating the State-by-State Effects of Terrorist Attacks on Three Major U.S. Ports: Applying NIEMO (the National Interstate Economic Model),” in Harry Ward Richardson, Peter Gordon, and James Elliott Moore, eds., The Economic Costs and Consequences of Terrorism, Northampton, Mass.: E. Elgar, 2006. Pape, Robert. (2003) "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Bombings." American Political Science Review 97 (3): 343-361. Pape, Robert (2005). Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. New York: Random House. Pedahzur , A. (2006) Root Causes of Suicide Terrorism The Globalization of Martyrdom. Ed Routledge. Peña, C.V. (March 28, 2005). $400 Billion defense budget unnecessary to fight war on terrorism, Policy Analysis No. 539, Cato Institute: Washington. (April 19, 2005). Penm, Jammie, Benjamin Buetre, and Q. T. Tran, (2004) Economic Costs of Terrorism: An Illustration of the Impact of Lower Productivity Growth on World Economic Activity Using GTEM, Canberra: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, ABARE eReport 04.8, June 2004. http://www.abareconomics.com/publications_html/economy/economy_04/er04_terrorism.pdf. Pittel K. and Rübbelke, D. T.G. (2006) “What directs a terrorist? “ Defence and Peace Economics, 2006, Vol. 17(4), August, pp. 311–328. Radu, Michael, (2001), “The Futile Search for "Root Causes" of Terrorism”. American Diplomacy, 27-5-2001. http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2002_07-09/radu_futile/radu_futile.html. Rapoport, D. (1984) “Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions,” American Political Science Review, vol. 878 (1984), pp. 658-677. Rapoport, D. (1999) "Terrorism," in Lester R. Kurtz and Jennifer E. Turpin, eds., Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict (London: Academic Press). Rapoport, D. (2001) “The fourth wave: September 11 in the history of terrorism”. Current History, Dec v100 i650 p419(6). V.C: “Las cuatro oleadas del terror insurgente y el 11 de septiembre “. Incluido en Fernando Reinares y Antonio Elorza (2004). El Nuevo Terrorismo Islamista. Del 11-S al 11-M, Ed. Temas de Hoy, Madrid, pp. 45 a 74. Rathbone, Anne and Rowley, Charles K., (2002), Department of Economics, George Mason University, USA. 15p. http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/working/Papers/02_13.pdf. Reinares, F. (2005). Conceptualizing International Terrorism. ARI Nº 82/2005 (Translated from Spanish) 1/9/2005. Real Instituto El cano. Reynolds, A.(1990) (Ministro de Hacienda de Irlanda). “Written Answers: Exchequer Cost of Northern Ireland Violence,” Dáil Éireann, Vol. 402, November 15, 1990. http://historicaldebates.oireachtas.ie/D/0402/D.0402.199011150029.html. Richardson, Harry W., Peter Gordon, James E. Moore II, Soojung Kim, Jiyoung Park, and Qisheng Pan, “Tourism and Terrorism: The National and Interregional Economic Impacts of Attacks on Major U.S. Theme Parks,” August 20, 2005. http://www.usc.edu/dept/create/assets/002/51819.pdf. Ringshaw, G. (2001) “Profit of doom”, The Telegraph, 3 de September de 2001. Romera Robles, M. (2004) “Aspectos económicos y financieros del 11 de Septiembre”, Estrategia Global, nº 3, abril-mayo de 2004, págs. 46-51. Rose, Adam, Gbadebo Oladosu, and Shu-Yi Liao, (2005) “Regional Economic Impacts of Terrorist Attacks on the Electric Power System of Los Angeles: A Computable General Disequilibrium Analysis,” August 2, 2005. http://www.geog.psu.edu/news/images/rose-oladosu-liao.pdf. Rosendorff, B. and Sandler,t.(2005) “The political Economy of Transnational Terrorism” Jornal of Conflict Resolution. Vol 49,nº2, aplril 2005, 171-182. Rosendorff, B. Peter, and Todd Sandler. (2004). Too much of a good thing? The proactive response dilemma. Journal of Conflict Resolution 48 (5): 657-71. Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban (2004) “Cities Under Stress”. Journal of Monetary Economics, vol. 51 ,nº5 pp: 903-927. Rubenstein, Richard E., (1987), Alchemists of revolution - Terrorism in the modern world. New York: Basic Books. 266 p. Sandler, T. (2005). Collective versus unilateral responses to terrorism. Public Choice, 124(1–2), 75–93. Sandler, Todd and Keith Hartley(1995). The Economics of Defense. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Sandler, Todd, and Walter Enders. 2004. An economic perspective on transnational terrorism. European Journal of Political Economy 20 (2): 301-16. Sandler,Todd, and Daniel G.Arce M. (2003).Terrorism and game theory. Simulation&Gaming 34 (3): 319-37. Saxton, J. (2002) The Economic Costs of Terrorism, Joint Economic Committee, United States Congress. Schmid, A. P. (1984) Political Terrorism: A Research Guide (New Jersey: Transaction Books, 1984). Scott, J.L. (2001) Media Congestion Limits Media Terrorism. Defence and Peace Economics , Volume 12, Issue 3 2001 , pages 215-227. Shughart II, W. F. (2006) An analytical history of terrorism, 1945–2000. Public Choice (2006) 128:7–39. Siqueira, Kevin. (2005). Political and militant wings within dissident movements and organizations. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (2): 218-36. Sloboda, B.W. (2003). “Assessing the Effects of Terrorism on Tourism by Use of Time Series Methods.” Tourism Economics, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 179-190. Smetters, K , (2004) Insuring Against Terrorism: The Policy Challenge available at http://irm.wharton.upenn.edu/WP-Insuring-Smetters.pdf. Stewart, F. and Fitzgerald,V. (2001) (Eds) War and Underdevelopment. Oxford University Press. Oxford. Tavares, J.( 2004) “The open society assesses its enemies: shocks, disasters and terrorist attacks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(5), pages 1039-1070, July. Trefgarne G. and English, S. “Terrorist hunt turns to London future markets”, The Telegraph, 21 de septiembre de 2001. Trujillo, E. y Badel, M. (1998) “Los costes económicos de la criminalidad y la violencia en Colombia: 1991-1996”. Archivos de Macroeconomía. Documento 76. Departamento Nacional de Planeación. República de Colombia, Bogotá. Victoroff, Jeff (2005) "The Mind of the Terrorist: A Review and Critique of Psychological Approaches," Journal of Conflict Resolution February 2005. VVAA (2007) War Risk and Terrorism. Report from the Insurance Institute of London. Walkenhorst, P. and N. Dihel. 2002. “Trade Impacts of the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September 2001: A Quantitative Assessment.” Conference paper. Economic Consequences of Global Terrorism. German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), June 14-15. Weinberg, Leonard B., and William L. Eubank. (1998). Terrorism and democracy: What recent events disclose. Terrorism and Political Violence 10 (1): 108-18. Whitehead, A. (2007) “Poverty and Terrorism” Homeland Security Policy Institute. Issue Brief No.1 Washington D.C. Wildasin, D.E. 2002. “Local Public Finance in the Aftermath of September 11.” Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 225-237. Wilkinson, Paul . (2001). Terrorism versus democracy: The liberal state response. London: Frank Cass. Wilkinson, Paul, (1977), Terrorism and the Liberal State. London: Macmillan Press. 257p. Wilkinson, Paul, (2001) Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. London: Frank Cass, 2001. Wilkinson, Paul. 1986. Terrorism and liberal state. Rev. ed. London: Macmillan. Williams, Robin M. Jr., (1994), 'The Sociology of Ethnic Conflicts: Comparative International Perspectives'. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 49-79. Wintrobe (2006) Rational Extremism. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press. Wintrobe, R. (2003) “Can Suicide Bombers Be Rational?” Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, March. http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/cpolit/papers/suicide.pdf. World Bank (2002) Fifteen Months Intifada, Closures and Palestinian Economic Crisis: An Assessment. Washington DC. World Bank (2003) Two Years of Intifada; Closures and Palestinian Economic Crisis: An Assessment. Washington DC.