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Seguridad Social (Un análisis de la investigación económica actual)

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1988
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Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales. Decanato
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Uno de los problemas que más atrae la atención de los investigadores económicos es el de los efectos económicos que originan los programas de Seguridad Social. Entre estos programas, uno de los de mayor volumen es el correspondiente a las pensiones. Y, por tanto, es también uno de los más estudiados. Por ello, nos centraremos principalmente en las aportaciones más recientes que se han efectuado en torno al mismo, al estudio de sus consecuencias sobre el ahorro y la oferta de trabajo, y la distribución de sus beneficios. Otro de los grandes bloques del análisis actual, relacionado con el anterior, es el que se ocupa de averiguar la incidencia económica de las cotizaciones que sirven para financiar la Seguridad Social y las alternativas de financiación. Estas últimas están muy relacionadas con el sistema de Seguridad Social que se elija. En la actualidad, se contempla éste bajo la óptica que proporciona dos objetivos en conflicto, según indica Thompson (1983, 1986). Por una parte se intenta conseguir una equidad individual a través de una provisión de pensiones que correspondan al resultado de un seguro público y que exigiría que estuvieran relacionadas con las cantidades pagadas en las cotizaciones o impuestos. Sistema éste que se corresponde con el denominado de capitalización. Por otra parte, se trata de asegurar a todas las personas una renta mínima, con lo cual no se relacionarían las cantidades pagadas con los beneficios recibidos. Este último sistema se corresponde con el denominado de reparto, en el cual los sujetos actualmente empleados sostienen a los que no lo están. La evolución de la pirámide poblacional en la última década y los problemas de desempleo cuestionan el mantenimiento del sistema de reparto en un futuro no muy lejano. Las últimas investigaciones van también, pues, en esta línea, intentando configurar las características que debe tener el sistema de Seguridad Social.
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