Sex-Related Disparities in the Incidence and Outcomes of Community-Acquired Pneumonia among Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Propensity Score-Matching Analysis Using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database for the Period 2016–2019

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(1) Background: To analyze incidence, clinical characteristics, procedures, and in-hospital outcomes among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) according to the presence of T2DM in Spain (2016–2019) and to assess the role of gender among those with T2DM. (2) Methods: Using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database, we estimated hospitalized CAP incidence. Propensity score matching was used to compare population subgroups. (3) Results: CAP was coded in 520,723 patients, of whom 140,410 (26.96%) had T2DM. The hospitalized CAP incidence was higher in patients with T2DM (both sexes) (IRR 4.25; 95% CI 4.23–4.28). The hospitalized CAP incidence was higher in men with T2DM than in women with T2DM (IRR 1.46; 95% CI 1.45–1.47). The hospitalized CAP incidence among T2DM patients increased over time; however, the in-hospital mortality (IHM) decreased between 2016 and 2019. IHM was higher among non-T2DM men and women than matched T2DM men and women (14.23% and 14.22% vs. 12.13% and 12.91%; all p < 0.001, respectively), After adjusting for confounders, men with T2DM had a 6% higher mortality risk than women (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.02–1.1). (4) Conclusions: T2DM is associated with a higher hospitalized CAP incidence and is increasing overtime. Patients hospitalized with CAP and T2DM have lower IHM. Male sex is a significant risk factor for mortality after CAP among T2DM patients.