Socket shield technique: A systematic review of human studies

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Background and Purpose Alveolar bone resorption after dental extraction frequently leads to situations in which long-term function and esthetic success of rehabilitations with dental implants is a challenge. Socket shield has been described as an alternative technique to maintain the alveolar ridge when placing immediate implants. The aim of this review is to evaluate the medium- and long-term clinical outcomes of the socket shield technique in human studies. Material and Methods This review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. An electronic search was conducted in four databases: (1) The National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE/PubMed) via Ovid; (2) Web of Science (WOS); (3) SCOPUS; and (4) Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). The Cochrane Collaboration tool, the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tool were used to assess the quality of evidence in the studies reviewed. Results Six articles were included in this review. The studies analysed showed lower rates of horizontal and vertical alveolar bone resorption, better maintenance of the buccal plate, less marginal bone loss and better esthetic results than simple placement of immediate implants. However, a lack of homogeneity was found in evaluation methods of the different outcomes, surgical procedures and prosthetic management. Conclusions Based on the results of this review, it is possible to suggest that socket shield technique could be a good alternative in terms of alveolar bone maintenance, marginal bone stability and aesthetic outcomes in immediate implant treatment. However, it is not possible to recommend this technique as an alternative treatment with the same long-terms predictability as conventional immediate implants.
CRUE-CSIC (Acuerdos Transformativos 2021)