Could Duodenal Molecular Mechanisms be Involved in the Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Silicon Used as Functional Ingredient in Late‐Stage Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

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Scope: Hypercholesterolemia increases the risk of mortality in type 2 diabetesmellitus (T2DM), especially in the late-stage. Consumption of bioactivecompounds as functional ingredients would help achieve therapeutic goals forcholesterolemia. Silicon has demonstrated a hypocholesterolemic effect andthe ability to reduce fat digestion. However, it is unclear whether silicon exertssuch effect in late-stage T2DM (LD) and the intestinal mechanisms involved.Methods and results: Three groups of eight rats were included: early-stageT2DM control (ED), LD, and the LD group treated with silicon (LD-Si) oncethe rats were diabetic. Morphological alterations of the duodenal mucosa, andlevels of markers involve in cholesterol absorption and excretion, besidecholesterolemia, and fecal excretion were assayed. Silicon included as afunctional ingredient significantly reduces cholesterolemia in part due to: 1)reducing cholesterol intestinal absorption by decreasing the absorptive areaand Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase-2 (ACAT2) levels; and 2) increasingcholesterol excretion to the lumen by induction of the liver X receptor (LXR)and consequent increase of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassettetransporter (ABCG5/8).Conclusions: These results provide insight into the intestinal molecularmechanisms by which silicon reduces cholesterolemia and highlights theefficacy of the consumption of silicon-enriched functional foods in late-stageT2DM.
CRUE-CSIC (Acuerdos Transformativos 2022)
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