The carotid axis revisited

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The aim was to determine the variations in the level of origin of carotid bifurcation and diameters of the common, internal, and external carotid arteries which is clinically important for several interventional procedures. Therefore, 165 human embalmed corpses were dissected. The data collected were analyzed using the Chi square-test and the Pearson correlation test. The results of previous studies have been reviewed. In relation to the level of the carotid bifurcation, taking as a reference point the hyoid bone, the values ranged from 4 cm below the hyoid body to 2.5 cm above the body of the hyoid, being the average height—0.33 cm, with a standard deviation of 1.19 cm. The right carotid bifurcation was established at a higher level (x = − 0.19 cm.) than the left one (x = − 0.48 cm.) (p = 0.046). On the contrary, no significant gender differences could be observed. The arterial calibres of the common and internal carotid arteries were higher in male than female. In the internal carotid artery (X = 0.76 cm.), the left was greater than the right (X = 0.72 cm.) (P = 0.047). However, no differences in the distribution of the calibre of the external carotid artery were found neither by side nor gender. Variations in the level of bifurcation and calibres of carotid arteries are relevant for interventional radiology procedures and head and neck surgeries. Knowledge of these anatomical references might help clinicians in the interpretation of the carotid system.
Cobiella R, Quinones S, Konschake M, Aragones P, León X, Vazquez T, Sanudo J, Maranillo E. The carotid axis revisited. Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 5;11(1):13847. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-93397-0. PMID: 34226652; PMCID: PMC8257668.